AmandaMarquez.EXAM1242 History

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'''Stamp Act:''' Was an act passed by the British Parliament in 1756, the Stamp Act enacted revenue from the American colonies by imposing a stamp duty (tax) on newspapers, legal, and commercial documents. The Stamp act was repealed in 1766

'''Stamp Act Congress'''- Established In 1765 Delegates from the colonies meet in New York to discuss an organized response to the new stamp act. This was the first convening of elected officials in the colonies.

'''Lemuel Haynes:''' The illegitimate child of a black and the daughter of a socially prominent white family in Hartford, Connecticut, the five-month-old baby Lemuel was abandoned by his parents and indentured to a white family in Massachusetts. Was a Patriot involved in the American Revolutionary War, a prominent New England Congregational minister, and the first African American in America to receive an honorary college degree.

'''Anne Hutchinson:''' Hutchinson discussed religious issues to men and women throughout the period of the puritan Great Awakening. She believed that salvation was God's direct gift to people, and you couldn't earn the salvation through good works, devotional practices or any other human efforts. She was frowned upon and denounced for antinomianism, which accused her of putting her own faith above human law. She violated Puritan doctrine by saying that God spoke directly through her instead of the church ministers. She was then banished from Massachusetts, but left a big footprint in the region's religious culture. She showed the public how the belief in individual interpretation of the bible could lead to the criticism of the religious and political establishment.

'''British view on colonial government:''' The British helped the start of the American colonies, but soon the colonies started to rebel and demand independence from Britain. Britain couldn't completely control American trade because of the length between the colonies and Britain due to the Atlantic Ocean, so the colonists were able to trade outside Britain law. The Pilgrims at Plymouth made the Mayflower Compact, which declared that they rule themselves. The Pilgrims made their own rules similar to how New England has in their town meetings. The American colonial economies were under mercantilism, a system based on the belief that the colonies only existed to increase Britain's wealth. Britain tried to regulate trading and started to tax the colonies. Since it was hard to maintain balance in regulating trade and tax on the colonies, an agreement was made that colonists can change their own tax. Soon the French and Indian War occurred and from the Britain view, the colonists should help pay for it because the colonies were suppose to be protected from the French and Indian.

'''Pequot War:''' In 1637 was the turning point when a fur trader was killed by Pequots-a powerful tribe who controlled southern New fur trade and exacted tribute from other Indians. A force of Connecticut and Massachusetts soldiers, augmented by Narragansett allies, surrounded the main Pequot forfeited village at Mystic and set it ablaze, killing those who tried to escape. Over 500 men, women, and children lost their lives in the massacre. By the end of the war a few months later, most of the Pequot had been exterminated or sold into Caribbean slavery. The treaty that restored peace decreed that their name be wiped from the historical record.

'''Republican Motherhood'''- the ideology that emerged as a result of American Independence where women played a indispensable role by training citizens. the role of women in the early days into the New World, Ex. Iroquois women controlled most of politics while men hunted vs. women in colonies who didn't have power but eventually some speak their opinions Ex. Anne Hutchinson who defied Puritan officials on her opinions involving salvation being a good thing and can be saved not automatic damnation meaning hell or heaven( they weren't going straight to hell still had time to fix before death)she was banished for her beliefs straying away from original puritan belief, which threatened the church.

'''Battle of Bunker Hill''' The Battle of Bunker Hill occurred in Massachusetts on June 17,1775 towards the beginning of the Revolutionary War. The battle took place between colonial militias and the British army. Despite losing the overall battle, the colonial militias caused massive causalities to the British army giving the colonists a major confidence boost despite having a lack of ammunition. This battle was a major turning point in the war, not because the colonist won but because of the severe damage caused to British troops.

'''Black Legend''' This Image of Spain as a cruel and exploitative colonizer that began to spread in the mid 1600's. IT was based on on much of fact the Spanish empire was cruel and manipulative to the New World inhabitants killing them using them as slaves all in the name of conquest.The image was spread by the Drawings and Writings of those that saw such actions and wished to inform the world of The Spanish Empire's nature as a colonizer.

'''Loyalist''' A colonist during the American Revolution that was loyal to Great Britain.

'''Richard Hakluyt''':A Protestant minister and scholar who wrote "A Discourse Concerning Western Planting." This listed twenty-three reasons that Queen Elizabeth should support the establishment of colonies. These reasons included that English settlements would strike a blow against Spain's empire and form part of a divine mission to rescue the New World and its inhabitants from the influence of Catholicism and tyranny.

'''Salutary neglect'''-avoiding strict enforcement of laws(navigation acts) that were made to make the american colonist obey England.

'''Common Sense pamphlet'''- Common Sense is a pamphlet written by Thomas Paine. It challenged the authority of the British government and the monarchy. The pamphlet also was meant to change the colonist viewpoints on the British. Paine wanted the colonist to fight for their independence. Also that the British were tyrannical, which means they do not honor the rights of the people.

'''Boston Tea Party''' - Colonists were angered by the Tea Act. On December 16,1773, a couple colonists dressed as Indians snuck onto three ships in the Boston Harbor and threw more than 300 chests of tea into the water. The British saw this as an attack on their "natural rights" because it was destruction of their property.

'''Lexington and Concord'''- These two battles started the American revolution also known as the "Shots heard 'round the world". It all started when the British came to disarm the American colonists, however militia there confronted the British. Sadly, the colonists were horribly defeated. This occurred in April of 1775. Shortly afterwards, the second continental congress formed.

'''Tea Act'''- The Tea Act (1773) is an act of the Parliament of Great Britain attempting to rescue East India Company, which was holding a massive amount of tea and financially troubled, and its investors by dumping low-priced tea on the American market, undercutting both merchants and smugglers. Although the tax on tea was not new, many colonists argued that to pay this tax on this large new body of imports would acknowledge Britain's right to tax the colonies. This led to the event of Boston Tea Party.

'''Middle Passage''' - a part of the Triangle Trade where the Africans were transported to the Americas and then were traded for sugar and tobacco.

'''Zenger Trial'''- (1733)Trial where John Zenger was accused of writing bad things about the government. During the trial Andrew Hamilton defended Zenger and the jury ruled him not guilty. After this trial Writers felt more comfortable publishing their honest opinions.

'''Encomienda-''' Spain had abolished this system, which the first settlers had been granted authority over conquered Indian lands with the right to extract forced labor from the native inhabitants. Bartolome de Las Casas was rewarded one of these.

''' George Whitefield'''
- He is an English minister that sparked the Great Awakening. Whitefield did a lot of emtional preaching that left crowds screaming. He believed that men and women could save themselves by repenting their sins. Whitefield sketched the boundless joy of salvation and the horrors of damnation.

"Nathaniel Bacon"- Born January 4, 1647, he was the son of an English gentleman, surrounded by lush country. He attended Cambridge university then later continued at home with a private tutor. After reading law at the Inn of Court, he married the daughter of a Suffolk squire. However, many people doubted him. He was noted to have good wits but was very impatient when it came to labor. In fact, his father-in-law was so furious of his daughter's choice of a man that he disinherited her and washed his hands of her. And father pulled him from Cambridge. And further, when he was caught defrauding another man, his father sent him to Virginia. But he made a fast recovery when he was accepted by his cousin, Berkeley. He acquired more than 1200 acres of land. But even so, his pride and arrogance would soon get the better of him.