Hinton Rowan Helper- (Jaret Huddleston) Was an American Southern critic of slavery during the 1850s. In 1857, he published a book which he dedicated to the "nonslaveholding whites" of the South. He believed that slavery was bad because it would effect the economy.

Battle of New Orleans - December 24, 1814 was the day that Great Britain and the United States signed a treaty in Ghent, Belgium that ended the war of 1812. However news about this treaty was slow so both sides thought that they were still in war. On January 8, 1815 was the battle of New Orleans. Andrew Jackson led victoriously for America, fooling plans for a British invasion.

nullification crisis: VP Calhoun argued for his state of South Carolina that the federal gov. only existed at the will of the states and if a state saw a federal law as unconstitutional then the state should have the rights to nullify that law within their boarders. Also argued that a state could declare a national law void.

Shadoe Bourn The First Seminole War- it began with General Andrew Jackson’s excursions to West Florida and Spanish Florida against the seminoles not too long after the end of the war of 1812. Britain and Spain were outraged at first, but eventually gave in. The Spanish Crowd finally agreed to cede Florida to the United States in the Adams-Onís Treaty of 1819. The seminoles were required to leave northern Florida and were sent to a reservation in the middle of the Florida Peninsula.

Slave generations- Charter generation- first slaves to arrive, moderate Prosperity for Africans who could purchase freedom.

     Plantation generation- 2nd gen, known to be the worst experience of the 4 gen.
     Revolutionary generation- new ideals of liberty made North better for Africans, South remains same.
     Migration generation- migration to the deep south prior to Civil War to aid in cotton production/ farming.

Treaty of Ghent- Nick Zalewski- The Treaty of Ghent was the peace treaty that ended the War of 1812 between the United States and Britain. It was signed on December 24, 1814 in Ghent, Belgium. It declared all conquered territory to be returned and planned commissions to settle the border between the United States and Canada.

War of 1812 - a two-front struggle against the British and against the Indians. The war produced significant victories over western Indians who sided with the British. Although the British burned the nation's capital, the War of 1812 was essentially a military draw.

"King Caucus"- Introduced in 1796; informal meetings in which U.S. congressmen would agree on who to nominate for President and Vice President from their political party. This was known as "King Caucus", because caucuses were undemocratic. This practice was ended in 1824. 1831; Caucuses were replaced with national president nominating conventions. Significance- 824, Voters were crying that the people must be heard and down with King Caucus. They turned against Crawford who had been selected by a caucus (undemocratic). 1831; Caucuses replaced by national nominating conventions.

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Covert Resistance- an unclear or concealed group responsible for the action; hidden real motive; a concealed action


"Trail of Tears" (Duy Pham) - The route along which the United States government forced several tribes of Native Americans, including the Cherokees, Seminoles, Chickasaws, Choctaws, and Creeks, to migrate to reservations west of the Mississippi River in the 1820s, 1830s, and 1840s. Those on the march suffered greatly from disease and mistreatment. The removal was under Andrew Jackson's command

>>>>>>> Worcester v. Georgia (Nhi Phan)- The U.S Supreme Court of 1832 held that the Cherokee Indians constituted a nation holding distinct sovereign power in the court case of Worcester V. Georgia. However, the decision could not protect the Cherokee Indians from being removed from their ancestral homeland in the Southeast, although it became the foundation of tribal sovereignty in the 20th century.


Indian Removal Act 1830- Was approved by Andrew Jackson in 1830. The Act granted the unsettled land west of the Mississippi to the Indian, exchange for the land near and inside state borders

William Henry Harrison- was the ninth President of the United States, an American military officer and politician, and the last president born as a British subject. He was also the first president to die in office.

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