Alfred Crosby, “The Columbian Exchange” available at

  • What did you make of the article on the Columbian Exchange? Thoughts, ideas, impressions?
  • What is the Columbian Exchange and why is it 'is one of the more spectacular and significant ecological events of the past millennium?'
  • Why do the Amerindians call Plantago major by the name "Englishman's foot"?
  • What happens to the native flora on the Eastern coast? What were the intended and unintended consequences of these agricultural settlements?
  • Alfred W. Crosby writes, 'Indigenous peoples suffered from white brutality, alcoholism, the killing and driving off of game, and the expropriation of farmland, but all these together are insufficient to explain the degree of their defeat.' What does he cite as the source of their defeat?