In-text Citations Tips

Generally speaking, here is the information you need to properly a source in APA:

  • Author's last name and the date of publication (these two always stay close together)
  • the page or paragraph number if you use direct quotation, but it is not required for paraphrased material

Signal phrasing is a common move in academic writing used by a writer to make a distinction between his or her voice and the voice, ideas, or words from a source.

  • Smith (2011) notes
  • Ellison (1986) argues that
  • Jameson (2000) states
  • Direct quote example with signal phrase:
    • Huffman and Sanderson (2014) note that the id is comprised of "innate biological instincts and urges" (p. 304).
  • Direct quote without a signal phrase -- all the citation goes at the end of the sentence in parentheses:
    • The id is comprised of "innate biological instincts and urges" (Huffman & Sanderson, 2014, p. 304).
  • Paraphrase example with a signal phrase
    • Huffman and Sanderson (2014) explain that, according to Freudian theory, the ego acts protectively to address anxiety by distorting reality and practicing self-deception.
    • According to Freudian theory, the ego acts protectively to address anxiety by distorting reality and practicing self-deception (Huffman & Sanderson, 2014, p. 304).