Theodore Parker, who was a radical Unitarian minister and absolitionist, Ralph Waldo Emerson, and Margaret Fuller were leaders of the Transcendentalist movement in the 1800s (the 19th century)! Parker's words and ideas were very influential and were used by those who followed him in history! Martin Luther King is often credited with sole authorship of the quote below. However, this is incorrect, because he was relying on Parker's text. (Hint: remember that Margaret Fuller is on your Exam III Review Guide!)


  • Reminder: Remember that your portfolio is due on December 14th by 10:30 am. I will have a box for you to submit these portfolios at Classroom East 213. The box will be sitting on the table! Make certain that you planned out a definite way to meet this deadline. Take into consideration printing, assembling, and getting a ride to school.
  • Peer/Group Evaluations for First-Year Symposium are due this evening by midnight! There is a link on Blackboard under content! You can do this right now if you need to!
  • We have a scheduled final time on Dec. 12th from 8:00-10:30. I will be there during this time. You are welcome to come during this time to get help on your Portfolios or to turn them in!

Texts Get Their Meanings From Other Texts

In NWWK, Section 2.6, Kevin Roozen writes about the way all texts, written and unwritten, are dependent on other texts for their content, meaning, and form.

Consider the quotes above from Theodore Parker and Martin Luther King, Jr.

  • What do you think these authors are trying to say?
  • Consider the historical timeframe in which these two men lived.
    • Can you draw an inference or take an educated guess as to what each man was responding to in their respective historical contexts?
    • Which quote do you prefer and why?
    • How do these two quotes illustrate Roozen's idea that texts get their meanings from other texts?

Think about the following "texts":

  • Your History Exam III Essay
  • Your Final Portfolio
  • Yourself as a student in Learning Community E
  • What are some texts that your History Exam Essay relies on?
  • What are some texts that your Final Portfolio will depend on?
  • What are some texts that shaped and influenced you as a student in Learning Community E??

Portfolio Time

Portfolio Rubric for Learning Community E

0399 for Today