• The Great Migration - Af. Americans - 6 million; Out of the segregated south to escape local/state Jim Crow laws; Economic pursuits; still faced persecution migrating north; population or demographic changes to the north; even after CW, passing of legislation - equality, equality was not viable; Race Riots - violence, Philadelphia; long-term impact - first to lose their "new" jobs toward the economic crash
  • Crash of 1929 - Loans are given to people who can't pay them back (banks); popularity of war bonds pushed people to this method; Oct 24; stocks fell by 11% every day; symptom of global economic instability; one factor of the G.D.; people lost faith in capitalism; caused problems beyond the stock market - agriculture; 9000 banks failed; leads to FDR's election; unemployment 9% (1930) to 23% (1932); extreme poverty both in urban (Hooverville's/shantytowns) and rural areas (Dust Bowl); migration to western states (Okies)
  • Bank Holiday - FDR closed banks March 6, 1930; Emergency Banking Act; Opened back on the 13th - Half were okay, 20% reorganized, 5% had to close; restored confidence; first fireside chat; trying to resolve economic issues; FDIC; Glass Steagall Act; 15th deposits outnumbered withdraws; did work
  • New Deal - 1933; series of progressive legislation that called for radical change in the American government; 2 parts (1933-1935) CCC, AAA, NRA; (1935-1943) WPA, Wagner Act, Social Security; alleviate the pains of the Great Depression through governmental assistance; didn't end the Depression but saved capitalism; helped/aided average Americans; many of the programs still exist today; government's involvement in the economy (which touched the lives of everyday/average Americans)
  • Social Security - part of the New Deal; Aug 1935; payments made to the aged for their work; workers pay into it while working (small amount every paycheck); opened up jobs for younger workers by allowing older workers security; created economic security for those who were most at risk; still exists; provides an avenue for retirement; supports retirement
  • Lend-Lease - March 1941 - neutrality/isolation; wartime aid to the Allied countries; aid to England; England was the only defense against Germany coming after American capitalism and democracy; broke neutrality; ended the Depression - war effort; budget of 7 Billion; Congress gives FDR the ability to offer aid to England; successor to the Cash and Carry program; sought to aid England against constant German airstrikes (the Blitz)
  • GI Bill of Rights - Readjustment Act 1944; rewarding returning WWII veterans to readjust to civilian life and re-enter the American workforce; 4 main parts - jobs, education, housing, business; white men; higher education more accessible and common; prevents veteran economic woes post-war (WWI); worked to solve unemployment after the war; houses - transferrable wealth; led to suburbs popping up across the nation; guaranteed returning soldiers their old jobs; parts of it still exists today; led to an entire population of educated persons
  • Japanese Internment - Japanese immigrants and citizens; west coast; 1942 - after the bombing of Pearl Harbor; Executive Order 9066 - FDR; Japanese were hastily removed from west coast and moved into the interior; 120,000 moved into internment camps in the interior (Manzanar); infringement of Constitutional rights - 14th; later used as a place of military recruitment; held as legal by the Supreme Court; Japanese lost 400 Billion in wealth; Congress later offered them reparations
  • Redlining - standardized regulatory policies by the FHA; 1934-1942; bank lending for home ownership/mortgages; $100 B in mortgages backed by the govt; 98% to Anglo Americans; growth in suburbs as many whites moved out of urban areas - as well as job opportunities; sets differing races on two distinct economic paths; form of institutionalized racism - favored whites; low economic status remained with people of color; did not receive short and long term benefits of home ownership; red zones (unfavorable for home ownership); divided communities along racial lines; education negatively effected for those living in undesirable zones (districting)

Essay #1 Outline