Brown v. Board of Education: Topeka, Kansas; NAACP was involved, lead the charge against the BoE?; overturned Plessy v. Ferguson (institutions - public spaces should be separate but equal); challenged segregation in schools; Thurgood Marshall; segregation in schools is detrimental to society; doll experiment - first major blow on segregation; had a negative effect on Af. Am. children - halted upward mobility in African American communities; slow to be integrated - Little Rock, Arkansas (1957)

Freedom Rides: organized by CORE (Congress of Racial Equality) - mostly young people, Af. Am; interstate bus rides (northern states to southern, segregated states); 1961; buses were under federal regulation (control) - interstate commerce; rules have to end the segregation of these buses; threat of violence; non-violent protest; different approach created by younger advocates for a quicker mode of change; violence was more visible to those in the northern states - advocacy for change; bi-racial

Black Power Movement: counter to assimilation (white society - MLK's tactics); 2 main parts: Black Panther Party - militant, used threat of violence to ensure the protection of Af. Ams. from police brutality, Oakland, California, ran community programs - open carry banned in Cali, Newton and Seale; Nation of Islam - Muhammed, Malcolm X, Ali, structured the Af. Am. community around the ideals of Islam (drinking), based in Detroit, sought to "improve" the black community - separationists from white society; not very popular at the time - largely unknown, younger demographic wanting change to occur more rapidly - w/o legislation; showcased the different approaches taken by Af. Ams. of the time

Tet Offensive: 1968, South Vietnam - attack by northern Vietnamese on southern cities; coordinated on a holiday; 120 separate attacks; broke the pact of peace; showed the American people that we were actually losing the war - televised; War of Attrition was being fought successfully; Johnson lying to the American people; limited end to the bombings in March 1968; pivotal moment of anti-war sentiment in the U.S.; forced Johnson to bow out of re-election

Vietnamization: U.S. giving the war to the South Vietnamese; U.S. pulling out of the region; Nixon's "secret" plan to win the war; end to the draft; expanded the war beyond Vietnam into Laos and Cambodia; assault the Ho Chi Minh trail - supply lines; 1972 - 60,000 troops pulled out by 1975 only 60,000 left in Vietnam; another case of lying or misinformation being given to the American people; caused instability in the region; 1/3 of Cambodians killed in assault; overall the war cost $150 B; as a result N. fully takes the S. at the Fall of Saigon in 1975; 2 M total died (58,000 American)

Hector P. Garcia: WWII veteran, Mexican immigrant, doctor, President of LULAC (League of United Latin American Citizens) - effort to give Latino Americans equal rights, segregation in the South, saw inequalities of the G.I. Bill (meant to help all veterans - disease) - response: American G.I. Forum 1948 - emphasized Latino Americans' sacrifice during wartime, need for equal opportunity to use GI Bill), argued for rights of ag. laborers, appointed by President Johnson as representative for Mexican American and Latino American rights, achieved equal rights for an entire population of veterans, argued against Texas poll taxes, made change through the legal system - using peaceful, legal tactics to advocate change, helped Latino veterans gain access to education, lived in Corpus Christi

Pentagon Papers: Daniel Ellsberg, 1967-1971, study of the history into US involvement in Vietnam - commissioned by President Johnson, Kennedy - Nixon, released to the New York Times, revealed dishonesty to the American people regarding Vietnam, Nixon's paranoia about the release - charged Ellsberg with espionage (charges dropped) - to find evidence, his psychiatrist office and his apartment was broken into, shows the steps that Nixon's administration was willing to take in order to "cover-up" US involvement in Vietnam, causes the people to lose trust in the American political system, shift in US politics - scandal, Nixon was not impeached for this release

Watergate: Nixon's administration, June 1972 - DNC broken into at the Watergate Hotel/Office building, CREEP, election year - looking to find "dirt" on the democratic nominee - George McGovern?, charged with obstruction - recording of conversations dealing with covering up break in, won the election 1972 - Watergate scandal had not been released until 1974, House wanted to impeach - passed but Nixon resigned before it went to Senate vote, Nixon pardoned by President Ford - wanted the country to "move on," further ruined American faith in the validity of the US government, trust from 42% in 1960s to 13% 1975, set a precedence toward non-trust in the government, Nixon only President to resign but not the only one to be impeached

Iranian Revolution: 1979, rebels overthrew the Shah (Pahlavi) - backed by the US government, owned a significant portion of Middle Eastern oil, Iran aligned with US in regards to the Cold War (democracy over Communism), increasing pressure from Communist groups and the Islamic fundamentalists led by Ayatollah Khomeini (eventually becomes leader of the country), Shah flees the country in 1977 in fear for his life, embargo on oil - stop exportation of oil to the US (US allowed Shah into the country for cancer treatment - rebels demanded his return) - Iranian hostage crisis; 52 people held for 444 days as hostages by fundamentalists, embassy stormed by students - Jimmy Carter; tried to rescue hostages in 1980 - failed military operation; Shah dies of cancer and Reagan's presidency; destabilized the region and their relationship with the US - still effects our political, international dealings with the country today

Supply-side Economics: President Reagan, 1980s(1981), smaller government involvement in the economy, companies gains will "trickle-down" to the ordinary laborers of America, Economic Recovery Act 1981- cut taxes for large corporations and the wealthy while removing funds from educational and environmental programs as well as welfare, created deficits in the federal budget, cut to welfare led to negative connotation toward those in need - fear of the "welfare state;" increased homelessness and poverty - led to continued impoverishment of those most in need; transition from New Deal to modern day economic systems