• The Great Migration - 6 million African Americans; leaving Jim Crow south to travel north or west; job opportunity; post-CW - post legislation that signaled equality (14th and 15th); state/local governments passing these laws (voting, violence, taxes); workers for industry (post WWI, Second Industrial Revolution); large population of workers lose their jobs during G.D.; still inequality in America; demographic and population changes
  • Crash of 1929 - stock market crash (Oct 1929); banks loaning funds to people that couldn't pay them back; credit; banks loaning money to buy stock; no real understanding of a capitalistic economy; consumer price index fell 25%; effects lasted until 1933; savings gone; bank holiday and New Deal (FDR); unemployment 25%; 30% laid off; mass hysteria - loss of confidence in American capitalistic economy; large population of impoverished people both rural and urban (shantytowns, Hooverville's)
  • Bank Holiday - March 6-13, 1933; FDR; closes bank for week to inspect - unstable or okay; 20% reorganized; Emergency Banking Act passed March 9th; 1000 banks closed; rebound - deposits overturn withdraws by March 15; Fire-side chats; allowed government enough time - saved the country from further hysteria; restored confidence in banks, in the American economy, in the government
  • New Deal - FDR's plan to recover from the Great Depression; 2 parts (1933-1935) - CCC, Tennessee River Valley Authority, NRA, AAA; (1935-1943) Social Security, WPA, Wagner Act; Glass Steagall Act; 3.3 Billion; didn't end the Great Depression but saved capitalism; decreased some of the negative effects of the Depression; led to the largest government spending in the nation's history; many of the programs are still in effect today; FDR's legacy
  • Social Security - Aug 1935; FDR - part of the New Deal; sought to help those either of retirement age or those unable to work; make room for younger demographic of workers; still in effect today; lowered unemployment; government spending on a volatile population; step toward socialist/progressive policy
  • Lend-Lease - March 1941; isolation/neutrality; successor to Cash and Carry; England; Bombing of Britain (the Blitz) continuous airstrikes on England by German forces; Congress allows FDR the power to aid England (last defense against the Germans before they made it to the U.S.); weapons, ships, food, any and all wartime materials needed; stronger alliance with GB; wanted to keep American neutrality; American involvement in the war - Allied forces; 7 Billion
  • GI Bill of Rights - aid to returning WWII veterans; 4 aspects - education, job security, housing, business policy; 1944; white males; prevented problems that occurred after WWI; still in effect today; urban sprawl (suburbs); medical benefits; allowed veterans to enter back into the workforce; extended pay for one year; generation of educated men; led to economic prosperity
  • Japanese Internment - FDR; Feb 1942 - post Pearl Harbor; Executive Order 9066; those of Japanese descent (both immigrant and citizen) moved out of "military zones" considered to be high-risk; west coast; development of internment camps 10; Manzanar; 120,000; undermined the Constitutional rights of Americans - Supreme Court allowed it (14th); huge loss of wealth; after release, demoted to a lower economic class; irony of interning while freeing those abroad; Europeans excluded; Roosevelt felt they could not assimilate into American culture
  • Redlining - standardized policies created by the FHA; 1934-1942; designated zones for home ownership; red zones are seen as the most undesirable - population, economic status, etc.; easier for Anglo Americans to own homes - institutionalized racism; trapped people of color in urban areas (dividing communities along racial lines); $120 B in banking mortgages given to 98% were to Anglos; GI Bill's protection of home ownership does not include protections for POC; poor education - taxes

Exam Essay Prompt 1