Brown v. Board: 1954; Topeka, Kansas; overturned Plessy v. Ferguson (separate but equal); NAACP; Thurgood Marshall; desegregation of schools; form of institutionalized racism; denied Af. Am. community "pursuit of happiness" - upward mobility; first NAACP victory; social science evidence used; states would not enforce - "all deliberate speed"; Little Rock, Arkansas 1957, 10,000 national guardsmen sent to Little Rock by Eisenhower to protect Af. Ams. entering into school; beginning of "mainstream" integration

Freedom Rides: 1961; CORE Congress of Racial Equality; interstate buses (under federal control) - expected to be segregated in the south; populations of young northern students boarding buses and traveling to the segregated south; under the threat of violence - several killed, beaten, buses burned; continuation of the push for civil rights; separate but equal still exists; contradicts the "equality" rhetoric; states exerting their power regardless of federal mandates; brought attention to this problem

Black Power Movement: late 1960s-1970s; counter to assimilation - Af. Ams. were a distinct community; most did not find that MLK's non-violence to be working; Black Panther Party (1964)and, California, Newton an Seale, use of threat of violence, militant, armed - ensure the safety of community members by following police, community projects, dramatic effect in the press, gun laws were instituted in California; Nation of Islam - Muhammed, Malcolm X, Ali - advocated rules of the "Nation" to be a integral in the community (drinking), separationists - Af. should be apart from white society, Malcolm X - used the language of "colonization" to argue that the black community is suffering under "outside" influences

Tet Offensive: 1968; coordinated assault by North Vietnamese on southern cities - during TET (New Year); stormed the US embassy (Saigon); showed the US people that the WH (Johnson) had been lying about victories in Vietnam; led to LBJ bowing out of re-election; televised; led to widespread anti-war protests in the US; especially coming out of WWII rhetoric - Americans learned that you can't always trust the government

Vietnamization: 1969-1975; slowly retreat from Vietnam; Nixon's "secret" plan to get US out of region; began a campaign in Cambodia and Laos to attack supply lines on the Ho Chi Minh Trail; less need for the draft (softened anti-war rhetoric); involved Vietnamese citizens - helped US troops escape; cease fire negotiated - two separate countries remained; (Fall of Saigon) 1975 - N. takes over the S.; destabilization of the region and countries around Vietnam; 58,000 Americans died - 3 to 4 Million Vietnamese in total; $150 B

Hector P. Garcia: Mexican immigrant, attended UT - medical license, WWII veteran, Latino rights activist and leader of LULAC (League of United Latin American Citizens); combat discrimination - assimilation of Latino citizens after WWII; life-threatening disease prompted his advocacy for equal rights under the GI Bill; created the American GI Forum - sought to bring equality to Latin American veterans - chapters in over 40 cities nationwide; argued against the Bracero Program and advocated for equal rights of ag. laborers and the abolition of Texas poll taxes; 1968 President Johnson appointed him as the commissioner and advocate of Mexican American civil rights; main voice for equal rights for Mexican Americans

Pentagon Papers: Daniel Ellsberg, 1967-1971, commissioned by President Johnson to write a summary of US involvement in the Vietnam War, released during Nixon's Presidency - The New Times; US government lied to the American people regarding the war; "The Plumbers" hoping to stop the leak of the papers broke into Ellsberg's apartment and psychiatrist office; further sparked distrust of the American government; public release kept Ellsberg for being arrested for treason; showed Nixon's paranoia while in office; weakened Nixon's credibility - scandal; politics no longer based in policy but by scandal

Watergate: June 1972; DNC office held in the Watergate Hotel/Building - broken into by CREEP (Nixon's re-election committee); trying to find "dirt" on George McGovern? (the democrat running against him); scandal that brought Nixon's presidency "down" - forced him to resign - charged with obstruction of justice (trying to cover up the scandal) - recordings of personal phone calls revealed - furthered distrust in the American political system; 62% confidence in government in 1966 fell to 13% by 1972; revealed by the Washington Post; Nixon impeached by the House of Representatives - before Senate vote he resigned; pardoned by Gerald Ford who wanted to "move-on" from the scandal; only President to resign from office by not the first to be impeached

Iranian Revolution: 1979; Shah Pahlavi (backed by the US government - advocate non-nationalization of oil in the Middle East - fell inline with American Cold War policies); overthrown by Islamic fundamentalists led by Ayatollah Khomeini and Communist (leftist groups); flees Iran in 1979 (exile) - comes to the US for "cancer treatment;" students supporting the Ayatollah storm the US embassy in Tehran - 52 hostages held for 444 days; President Jimmy Carter could not negotiate release - tries a military recovery - fails (refuse to release hostages under Carter) - Shah dies - hostages are released but not until Ronald Reagan become President - embargo of oil (exportation of oil from Iran halts - driving up prices of gas) - destabilized relations with the country, set a precedence for Middle Eastern dealings

Supply-side Economics: Reagan's Presidency (1980-1988); lower taxes on those attaining more wealth; led to investments in the economy - "trickle down to the everyday American"; outweighs tax loses; cut spending on welfare, education, and environmental protections; first submitted through the Economic Recovery Act (1981); shift from deficit spending to a more conservative economic policy; marked a significant change of how the American government deals with the economy; increased homelessness and poverty in the nation - negative connation to those effected by this policy