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Stamp Act Riots

  • August 15, 1765 colonist burnt an effigy of tax collector Andrew Oliver and marched the effigy down the streets, past his office then destroyed and burnt his office and his home; significant because colonists actions made it difficult to employ a tax collector and collect the taxes so Parliament repeals the act that led to the event; significant because this event splits the colonists between those who think their actions of burning an effigy of the tax collector and destroying his home and office were justified and those who think the colonists acted like an unruly mob

The Coercive Acts

  • Act passed in 1774 designed to crack down on Bostonians after the Boston Tea Party and also called the Intolerable Acts; weakened the local government of Boston by closing Boston Harbor, disassembling Boston Assembly, and demanding taxes and cost of tea destroyed in Boston Tea Party be paid; significant because it gave a common cause for all the colonies to rally around and led to 12 of 13 colonies attending First Continental Congress

The First Continental Congress

  • Meeting of 12 of 13 colonies in Philadelphia in 1774 after Coercive/Intolerable Acts passed by British Parliament; significant because it set up more communication between the colonies and set up committees to ensure that a non-import and non-export policy would be followed by all colonists; significant because independence and revolution are never mentioned at this meeting but instead leaders discussed how to get Parliament to give into their demands NOT independence

Lexington & Concord

  • Who/what: the English Army and Navy are present in Boston; Colonials from Boston were stockpiling weapons in Concord. Spies informed the British, who then went to Concord to confiscate the weapons. Paul Revere was the rider sent to warn the colonials that the British were coming. The British are stopped by a colonial militia who are there to protect the towns. The militiamen are untrained, and the British are able to shoot their way through. In Concord they are met by a larger force and retreat. They turn around and suffer casualties on the way back to Boston.
  • When: April 1775
  • Where: Lexington & Concord
  • Historical Significance: This was the beginning of the American Revolution. Also, the militia’s victory gave them a boost of confidence that they could potentially win their independence.
  • April of 1775 near Boston; British forces learn that colonists are stockpiling arms in several places and General Gage takes his forces to confiscate the weapons then are met by American militia; significant because militia defeats British forces and this is the beginning of the war, also leads to the 2nd Continental Congress where Americans decide to declare independence

Loyalists

  • Who/What: Colonists who were opposed to the revolution and independence from Great Britain. They made up about 20-30% of the colonists. Came from different groups such as: those not born in the colonies, those recently immigrated from Great Britain, merchants and others who had money tied up in Great Britain; typically Anglicans who were loyal to the Church of England and the King; people who made their living by selling goods to Great Britain and did not agree with the boycott; colonists who were followers of the rules and the laws; People who did not want to fight and would rather pay taxes; people who did not like being hounded by the Militia to join the fight. These people saw the militia as defining liberty in their own way. The colonies could not really declare independence when a large number of colonists were not in agreement with this. These people were expelled after the American Revolution and sent to live in Canada.
  • When: Late 1700’s through the Revolutionary War
  • Where: Present day U.S., American colonies
  • Historical Significance: Assisted the British in having an initial advantage over the colonists; show division in the colonies about the governing body
  • Colonists that were opposed to the revolution and independence. They made up about 20-30% of the colonists. Came from different groups such as:
    • Those not born in the colonies, recently immigrated from Great Britain. They were typically Anglicans who were loyal to the Church of England and the King.
    • People who made their living by selling goods to Great Britain and did not agree with the boycott
    • Colonists who were followers of the rules and the laws
    • People who did not want to fight and would rather pay taxes
    • People who did not like being hounded by the Militia to join the fight. These people saw the militia as defining liberty in their own way.
  • The colonies could not really declare independence when a large number of colonists were not in agreement with this. These people were expelled after the American Revolution and sent to live in Canada.
  • colonists willing to fight for the British if it comes to war who are wanting to avoid anarchy; significant because this shows that not all colonists were behind the independence movement

Common Sense

  • Who/What: A pamphlet written by Thomas Paine in a simple and easy format for common people to understand; Written to encourage independence from Great Britain. Three main points: advocate to the people for the benefits of forming a republic; the necessity of unity in the colonies in order to achieve independence; and educate people about the problems that come with monarchies. Paine was trying to persuade people to form a republic and said that monarchy was not a good method of government. An estimated 100,000 copies were sold during the first year, but this was Paine’s estimate of how much was sold
  • When: January, 1776
  • Where:
  • Historical Significance: Convinced colonists to fight for independence. It changed the mindset of those colonists who were neutral to be on the side of independence. It also influenced the writing of the Declaration of Independence.

Declaration of Independence

  • Who/What: Benjamin Franklin, Samuel Adams, John Hancock, etc.; Document that formally declared the independence of the colonies from the King of England. Five men were charged with creating this document, including Thomas Jefferson. The first two paragraphs were political philosophy. The next two pages were complaints about the king. Prior to the Declaration of Independence, the colonists' primary complaints were about the British parliament. This document was considered an act of treason because the colonies were declaring themselves a new country.
  • When: It was created on July 2, 1776, which is the day that John Henry Lee asked congress for independence; however, Independence Day is considered July 4, 1776, because the document was officially released on this date.
  • Where: Philadelphia, First Continental Congress
  • Historical Significance: A document that had no previous model to follow of people throwing off their ruling empire and declaring independence so a revolutionary document; official declaration of independence on the part of the colonies.
  • signed on July 4, 1776; a document that had no previous model to follow of people throwing off their ruling empire and declaring independence so a revolutionary document
  • Document that formally declared the independence of the colonies from the King of England. It was created on July 2, 1776, which is the day that John Henry Lee asked congress for independence; however, independence day was considered July 4, 1776, because the document was officially released on this date. Five men were charged with creating this document, including Thomas Jefferson. The first two paragraphs were political philosophy. The next two pages were complaints about the king. Prior to the Declaration of Independence, the colonists' primary complaints were about the British parliament. This document was considered an act of treason because the colonies were declaring themselves a new country.

Saratoga

  • Who/What: American General Horatio Gates and British General John Burgoyne have a battle. Burgoyne attempts to take the Hudson River Valley. This tactic would have split the colonies in half geographically. The Americans were outnumbered by Burgoyne's men, but this was actually a disadvantage for the British since they had to carry supplies and extra non-military people (women, etc) for these soldiers. Burgoyne surrenders 5700 men to Gates.
  • When: October/end of 1777
  • Where: state of New York
  • Historical Significance: This was the first time that the Americans had taken captive a large part of the British army. This was also the victory that motivated the Americans to keep fighting the war. The French decide to join with the colonists because of the victory at Saratoga. This ultimately led to the Franco-American Treaty in 1778, which stated that the French would not attempt to conquer North America; the French and Americans would work together as equals, and France brings their navy and army to join the war.
  • October 1777, in New York American General Horation Gates and British General John Burgoyne have a battle. Burgoyne attempts to take the Hudson River Valley. This tactic would have split the colonies in half geographically. The Americans were outnumbered by Burgoyne's men, but this was actually a disadvantage for the British since they had to carry supplies and extra non-military people (women, etc) for these soldiers. Burgoyne surrenders 5700 men to Gates. This was the first time that the Americans had taken captive a large part of the British army. This was also the victory that motivated the Americans to keep fighting the war. The French decide to join with the colonists because of the victory at Saratoga. This ultimately led to the FrancoAmerican Treaty in 1778, which stated that the French would not attempt to conquer North America, the French and Americans would work together as equals, and France brings their navy and army to join the war.
  • end of 1777 General Gates gets a significant victory over the British; significant because a victory in this battle proves to the French that the Americans have a legitimate chance to win the war which convinces the French to help the Americans; significant because French and Americans sign Franco American Treaty in Feburary of 1778 after a victory at this battle which means Britain is now at war with American AND France

Yorktown

  • Who/What: American forces led by George Washington battled with British forces led by General Cornwallis. The Americans outnumbered the British, but the British controlled the shores. The French Navy came from the Caribbean islands and overtook the British Navy, which split the British forces and led to an American victory.
  • When: Fall of 1781
  • Where:
  • Historical Significance: The deciding battle of the Revolutionary War; This made the British decide they needed to end the war; led to the Treaty of Paris 1783
  • deciding battle of the Revolutionary War in the Fall of 1781 where American forces are led by George Washington who split the British forces; significant because this made the British decide they needed to end the war; significant because this battle led to the Treaty of Paris 1783

Treaty of Paris

  • meeting of Benjamin Franklin, John Adams and John Jay with British officials that ended the Revolutionary War; significant because it demanded that British leave North America entirely, give up their forts in North America, remove their soldiers from North America and British get assurance that America will honor its pre-war debts and compensate loyalists for their seized land; document that gives the United States land boundaries to the Mississippi River

Articles of Confederation

  • first governing document of the new United States of America; document written in the context of the Revolution that was against a strong central government and gave very specific powers to the government; significant because this document made the central government very weak (couldn’t tax citizens) which led to problems in the United States such as Shay’s Rebellion

Antifederalists v. Federalists

  • argument between the two groups on the ratification of the Constitution; significant because this disagreement shows that the ratification of the Constitution was NOT inevitable and many people had serious problems with the power that the Constitution gave the central government; significant because the argument led to the Bill of Rights as well as several compromises in the Constitution

3/5 Compromise

  • Who/What: Compromise in the constitution dealing with apportionment for house of reps; Since House is determined by population have to figure out what to do with slaves; will count as 3/5 of a person, states can count 3/5 of their total slaves; South wanted to count all of those who were enslaved; the North didn't want to count any; 3/5 is the compromise
  • When: 1787
  • Where: Worked out during Constitutional Convention
  • Historical Significance: Gives free white southern voters greater say over the government than their northern counterparts. Will keep Congress from dealing with Slavery and will keep presidency in mostly hands of Southerners for first 48 years of union
  • centered around how to determine every states’ population to determine the number of representatives each state would get in the House of Representatives; significant because it gives southern states the advantage in number of representatives in House of Representatives which will make it difficult to pass any legislation against slavery; significant because it gives the south more voters in elections so for 40 of the first 48 years of the United States under the Constitution, the President was from the South

Hamilton's Economic Plan

  • Who/What: Hamilton was Washington’s Sec. of Treasury; Laid out his plan for making the U.S. economy just like Britain’s; Three main things - National Bank, Assumption of State Debt, Encourage manufacturing; Alexander Hamilton, secretary of the treasury under the Washington administration, federalist; He proposed an economic plan based on Great Britain's. It included: national bank, power to levy and collect taxes, government will assume state debts, and encourage manufacturing. Hamilton interpreted the constitution broadly. Used the necessary and proper clause to justify the creation of a national bank. He wanted to assume debt to show that the nation could be trusted to pay off debt. He wanted this to happen so that people would come to love the government. War bonds- government paid interest to the common citizen. Speculators purchased war bonds and then resold. The Revolutionary soldiers sold their bonds because they needed money immediately rather than in the future. This bound the wealthy to the government. He wanted to encourage manufacturing so that the country could be self sufficient. With a national bank, America could control interest rates, have influence over small banks, and make larger loans because money supply is controlled. The government should be able to collect taxes so that there is a financial source for repairing roads, funding the army, and to run the infrastructure in general.
  • When: 1789-1790s (Washington Administration)
  • Where:
  • Historical Significance: Shows Federalist plan, Sets up conflict with Jeffersonians who want the opposite – is a big government plan – could be seen as a reversion to British ways; Set up a model for modern economic principles

Jefferson's Revolution of 1800

  • Who/What: Thomas Jefferson was elected into office and started to change the way things were run in America; Empire of Liberty- decentralize the government; cut down on taxes but keep import taxes; Cut the military in half, and stopped progress on building a navy; he settled with a small coast guard; wanted to pay off the national debt that America; wanted to expand across the continent West and down through Mexico to South America; independent farmers- less class issues, all farmers should have small to medium farms; agricultural expansion West and manufacturing society on the East; give all people modest family farms so that goods could be sold to the European market
  • When: 1800
  • Historical Significance: Cut down federal debt to $40 million; doubled size of the US
  • resulted after Federalist party used their popularity to pass controversial acts like the Alien Act and the Sedition Act; significant because afterwards the President began implementing policies that undid the first 12 years of Presidential policies like repealing the Whiskey Tax, decentralizing the government and slashing spending

Re-Export Trade

  • Who/What: Britain, France, and the US; Britain and France were at war and the US was neutral; US wanted to benefit economically from both countries; Brits controlled the seas; This meant France could not export or import sugar; Sugar was the most profitable export/import item at that time; The French decided to allow other countries carry their sugar to Europe so they could still make money; British navy began to attack American ships taking goods into France. They would confiscate the goods being carried on the ship, and force American sailors to be a part of the British navy (impressment).
  • When: early 19th century
  • Where: Caribbean, America, and Europe
  • Historical Significance: Initially American ports were able to gain wealth but it hurt the economy because it did not work; Led to Jefferson passing on embargo which ultimately was a huge fail
  • policy that allowed merchants to get around the British embargo on sugar from the French islands; practice where American merchants would bring sugar from the French Sugar Islands to America, pay the taxes, then sell it to other countries at an increased rate; significant because this practice allowed America to become the number one sugar exporter in the world
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