When taking notes about these significant terms it may be helpful to make sure you are writing down information that answers the following questions: Attach:Fall2015Exam1TraidCEssay1Key.doc

  1. Who?
  2. What?
  3. When?
  4. Where?
  5. Historical Significance (aka. So what? Why is this important?)

DISCLAIMER: THE INFORMATION ON THIS PAGE IS A COMPILATION OF CLASS ACTIVITIES THAT HAVE BEEN COMPLETED TO ASSIST YOU WITH PREPARING FOR THE EXAM. IN NO WAY IS THIS MEANT TO BE YOUR ONLY MEANS OF STUDY NOR HAS THIS INFORMATION BEEN CHECKED FOR ACCURACY. IT IS YOUR RESPONSIBILITY TO BE IN CLASS, STUDY, AND READ IN ORDER TO OBTAIN ALL THE KNOWLEDGE NEEDED TO BE SUCCESSFUL ON YOUR EXAMINATION.


James Thompson Callender

  • James Thompson Callender was a newspaper editor and a member of the Jeffersonian party. During President Adams' administration, Callender was thrown into jail for violating the sedition act. After he was released, he wanted to become a postmaster because being postmaster would give him the ability to be at the center of the information. He would be able to decide which news was disseminated first. Callender decided to blackmail Thomas Jefferson for this position by threatening to publish an article about him. Jefferson refused to grant Callender the position of postmaster. In 1802, Callender released the story that Thomas Jefferson had fathered children with an enslaved woman named Sally Hemings,who also was the sister of Jefferson's wife. Three months after the story was published, Callender died by accidental drowning. James Thompson Callender is historically significant because he brought to light the relationship that Thomas Jefferson had with Sally Hemings. This also exposed this type of relationship between a master and their enslaved, which was never spoken about publicly previously.

Cahokia

  • Who/What:
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Toscanelli Map

  • Who/What: Toscanelli was an Italian cartographer; he created a map the earth that showed that it was 17,000 miles around, which is 1/3 of other predictions about the size of the earth; Toscanelli made an assumption that Asia was close to Europe and just across the Atlantic, only 3000 miles away from Europe; this judgment was made off of Marco Polo's book; he believed there was an island before India, and India was west of the island; the map contradicted popular belief at the time that the world had a smaller circumference
  • When: 1474
  • Historical Significance: one of the earliest developed maps of the world; This is the map that Columbus used to try to find a route to India. This lead to him landing in the New World.

Columbian Exchange

  • Who/What: The exchange of plants, people, animals, and microbes between the Old World and the New World; The Old World brought wheat, and the New World gave them potatoes, corn, squash, tomatoes, sugar, rice, and tobacco; The Old World brought cattle, horses, pigs, and domesticated animals, and the New World gave them guinea pigs, alpacas, and llamas; The Old World brought smallpox, measles, yellow fever, and typhus, and the New World gave the Old World syphilis; the Spanish intermingled with the Native Americans and created a new race.
  • When: 1492
  • Where: Between the New World and Old World, Columbus landed in Hispaniola
  • Historical Significance: The first major contact between the New World and Old World; established trade between the two; began globalization; radically changed the Old World's diet and increased the population as well as the length of life; majorly decreased the population of Native Americans in the New World; changed the ecosystem of the New World

Reconquista

  • Who/What: Reconquest operation to reconquer Spain after the Moores had taken over Spain; the Spaniards had to use military tactics to reconquer their land
  • When: 790-1400's
  • Where: Spain, the Iberian Peninsula
  • Historical Significance: Spanish used the same military tactics to colonize the New World; this formed Spanish culture to revolve around religion and militarism; this gave Spain a new confidence and inspired them to want to conquer more lands and build the Spanish empire

Encomiendas

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Fur Trade

  • Who/What: French traded beaver pelts with the Native Americans; Native Americans provided the beaver pelts so that the French could make nice waterproof hats; in return the French gave the Native Americans European goods such as guns and other metalworks; the beaver were hunted to near extinction; Because of this, the Native Americans were venturing outside of their own territories to acquire more beaver; this led to warring between the Native American tribes; this was an issue because not all of the tribes had guns; French began to adopt Native American culture; Frenchmen took Native American wives
  • When: 1500's/16th Century
  • Where: Modern day Canada
  • Historical Significance: Increased the trade between Native Americans and Europeans; Beavers being hunted to near extinction led to change in the ecosystem; guns had been introduced into Native American culture;

Virginia Company

  • Who/What: Joint stock company, purpose was to make money; sent people to the New World to look for gold, issued stock to the people who volunteered to move there; the people who went were blacksmiths, tradesman, merchants, and primarily men; they did not send farmers to cultivate the land, because of this there was a food shortage/starvation; there were conflicts with the Native Americans; they chose a bad location, this location was chosen to stay away from the shore for fear of being attacked by the Spanish; the water was brackish which led to lots of diseases (yellow fever, dysentery, measles); there was trade set up with Native Americans, but by 1610 they were at war because they began to demand food and other items rather than trade; this colony was called Jamestown, named after King James; John Smith was one of the first leaders, he attempted to get everyone to farm for four hours per day, but they refused; eventually they began to grow tobacco
  • When: 1607
  • Where: Present day Virginia
  • Historical Significance: led to first English colony in the Americas

Indentured Servitude

  • Who/What: A labor system that involved signing a contract that sold themselves into labor for five to seven years; many did this to gain passage to the New World; it was similar to being enslaved; very hard labor, little rest, little to no dues at the end (freedom, some clothes, some tools); really only benefited the person who paid for the servant to come here, gained land and labor but gave little in return; females could be taken advantage of because their indenture was extended if they became pregnant; indentured servants kept their rights as Englishmen; had a high mortality rate, many died before getting to the colonies, many also died while indentured
  • When: 17th Century
  • Where: Jamestown
  • Historical Significance: It provided a source of labor on tobacco plantations/farms; it was a precursor to slavery because people who are enslaved never get their freedom which means they cannot rebel.

Bacon's Rebellion

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Great Migration

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Roger Williams

  • Who/What: Puritan minister, believed that the king was too corrupt; arrested and charged with sedition and heresy; this resulted in him being banished from Mass.; founded Rhode Island on the principle of separation of Church and State; this land was purchased from Native Americans (Narragansett)
  • When: 1636, banished from Mass. Colony
  • Where: Massachusetts and Rhode Island
  • Historical Significance: He created the idea that the Church could be separate from the State; did not use violence to acquire land from Native Americans; showed that although the Puritans came for religious freedom they did not tolerate the free religion of others

Great Awakening

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Ben Franklin

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Middle Passage

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Law of Descent

  • Who/What: If a child was born to an enslaved mother then that child would also be enslaved; father was irrelevant; this allowed for slave owners to exploit their female enslaved; this also meant that mothers could not lie about the paternity of their children to save them from a life of slavery
  • When: 1662
  • Where: Virginia
  • Historical Significance: Was one of the first laws in place regarding slavery; solidified whether those who were enslaved were enslaved forever or whether they eventually got their freedom; this allowed for slave owners to exploit their female enslaved

Seven Years' War

OMIT

Pontiac's Rebellion

OMIT


Attach:Fall2015Exam1TraidCEssay1Key.doc
1. Which type of European colonization system do you believe had the most significant impact on the history of North America: Spanish, French, or British? In your answer, describe the colonization and settlement practices of all three empires and explain why you believe your choice had the largest impact.

OMIT: 2. To what extent do you feel that the British colonists in North America saw themselves as united as a single cultural, economic, and political entity at the end of the Seven Years’ War? In your answer discuss the factors you feel united the colonists and the factors that separated them in the era between the initial English colonial settlements early in the 1600s and the end of the Seven Years’ War in 1763. (Note that this question is not about the American Revolution or the Revolutionary Era. You won’t want to waste your time writing about those subjects.)