When taking notes about these significant terms it may be helpful to make sure you are writing down information that answers the following questions:

  1. Who?
  2. What?
  3. When?
  4. Where?
  5. Historical Significance (aka. So what? Why is this important?)

DISCLAIMER: THE INFORMATION ON THIS PAGE IS A COMPILATION OF CLASS ACTIVITIES THAT HAVE BEEN COMPLETED TO ASSIST YOU WITH PREPARING FOR THE EXAM. IN NO WAY IS THIS MEANT TO BE YOUR ONLY MEANS OF STUDY NOR HAS THIS INFORMATION BEEN CHECKED FOR ACCURACY. IT IS YOUR RESPONSIBILITY TO BE IN CLASS, STUDY, AND READ IN ORDER TO OBTAIN ALL THE KNOWLEDGE NEEDED TO BE SUCCESSFUL ON YOUR EXAMINATION.


Exam 3 Study Guide

Missouri Compromise

  • Who/What: Henry Clay; Missouri wanted to become a state; If Missouri became a state, then there would be no balance of slave states and non-slave states, one more slave state than non-slave state; Clay proposed a compromise that included: Maine (non-slavery) and Missouri (slavery) would both become states, a line was drawn that determined that any land below the lower Missouri boarder would be a slave state and above would be a non-slave state; it was not a permanent fix; this compromise still resulted in an unbalance in the house of representatives and the electoral college because of the 3/5 compromise
  • When: 1819-1820
  • Where:
  • Historical Significance: One of the factors leading up to the Civil War; gave Northerners less power to pass laws regulating slavery

Nullification Crisis

  • Who/What: John C. Calhoun; South Carolina did not want to pay taxes on goods imported into the U.S. because the taxes made things more expensive for the consumer; Calhoun was the senator for South Carolina; he proposed that the states should be able to nullify federal laws - they could choose not to follow a law they did not like; South Carolina declares that they will not pay any tariffs; President Jackson became concerned because this could open the door for other states to begin nullify federal laws; He feared this would cause the federal government to fall apart; President Jackson asked Congress for a force bill to invade S. Carolina; this forces S. Carolina to pay the taxes; Henry Clay worked out a deal to lower the price of the tariff that would make S. Carolina end the nullification
  • When: 1830-1833
  • Where: South Carolina
  • Historical Significance: This was a precursor to the events surrounding the Civil War - the split of the North and South; States did not have the power to overrule federal law - once again we see the conversation about states rights versus federal law; as long as nullification was a possibility the federal government was at stake

Indian Removal

  • Who/What: President Andrew Jackson forced Native Americans off of their lands from Georgia, Florida, and Alabama because gold was found on some of the Native American tribal lands and it was also very fertile for planting cotton; the Native Americans were moved to Oklahoma on foot with military escorts; a total of 16,000 Cherokee (refused to leave) traveled to Oklahoma and about 1/4 of them died along the way - became known as the Trail of Tears; before this happened the Cherokee took their case to the Supreme Court (Worcester vs Georgia) and they won, but President Jackson ignored this; he told them they were getting a better deal, but this was not the case; the lands were not very fertile, it was hard to get water to the farm lands, the winters were harsh, and they became dependent on the government to care for themselves because they could not produce food.
  • When: 1820
  • Where: Georgia, Alabama, Florida, and moved to Oklahoma
  • Historical Significance: Shows how harshly Native Americans were treated; they had not rights; showed the democracy of the common white man and opened up more land for the spread/increase of slavery; the President acted against the ruling of SCOTUS and the Constitution

Gradual Emancipation

  • Who/What: Law that stated that all people who were enslaved and born after March 1, 1780, would become free after their 22nd birthday; slavery was on the decline in the North, this was meant to help speed up that process; Gradual because society and slave holders did not want a large rush of enslaved people to be made free all at once, this was meant to slowly increase the population of free African Americans; This was happening in the Northern states - Pennsylvania was the first to pass this in 1780, Massachusetts passed this in 1783, Vermont passed in 1790 (but they never had slavery), and Rhode Island, New York, New Jersey, Connecticut, and New Hampshire passed this also between 1780 and 1784. Pennsylvania eventually had freed all African Americans by 1847. Northerners could opt to sell enslaved people before their 22nd birthday to a Southerner so that they would never be free.
  • When: 1780-1784
  • Where: Northern States
  • Historical Significance: This was a huge step towards ending slavery in the U.S.; this was an eventual step towards the Civil War; increased political tensions between the North and South; disproved the idea of paternalism

Paternalism

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Coverture

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Republican Motherhood

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Wilmot Proviso

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Free Soil Party

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Compromise of 1850

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Dred Scott Case

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Election of 1860

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Emancipation Proclamation

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1. Long after the Revolutionary War ended, Americans continued to debate the meaning of the Revolution. Some historians have described it as an "unfinished revolution." Do you agree with this characterization? Why or Why not? In your essay you should describe the efforts of the following groups to gain greater political power or social standing in America between 1800 and 1865: African Americans, Women, and Native Americans. [Note that you are free to include content covered before exam 2.]

Essay 1 Outline

2. Do you think that the Civil War between the North and South was inevitable? Why or why not? In your answer, describe the historical events between 1840 and 1861 that pushed the North and the South toward conflict as well as those forces that acted to keep the nation together. [Hint: You’ll want to discuss historical events that we talked about in class. Talking vaguely about slavery won’t cut it.]

Essay 2 Outline