When taking notes about these significant terms it may be helpful to make sure you are writing down information that answers the following questions: Attach:Sp16Exam3GraderSheet.doc

  1. Who?
  2. What?
  3. When?
  4. Where?
  5. Historical Significance (aka. So what? Why is this important?)

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Exam 3 Study Guide

The Cold War

  • Who/What: A war between Russia and the U.S.; no actual combat happened; nuclear warfare was a big fear; both countries stockpiled nuclear weapons; there was a difference in political systems: capitalism vs. communism; the U.S. asked Russia to leave Poland so that it could be its own country, but the Soviets wanted Poland in order to create a buffer zone between them and Germany
  • When: After WWII until 1991
  • Where: Soviet Union
  • Why/Significance: This led to huge stockpiles of nuclear weapons; CIA was created; National Security Act came out of this
  • Who/What: Soviet Union and United States of America; Threats of war, fears of communism spreading throughout Europe, Nuclear arms race- competition between the two countries to have the most nuclear weapons; The dividing alliances were NATO and the Warsaw Pact; The tensions between the USA and Soviet Union began during WWII
  • When: 1945-1985/1990
  • Where: Europe- Germany, Soviet Union, Poland, and Cuba
  • Why/Significance: Led to the Marshall Plan, No actual physical war, was primarily ideological/political, Nuclear development meant that the world could literally be destroyed by nuclear weapons, Fight for more control/world power

The Marshall Plan

  • Who/What: George Marshall; provided aid to rebuild Europe after WWII; $12 billion in aid was provided to Western and Southern Europe; aided European economy to get back up to speed; offered to Communist countries as well
  • When: 1948-1952
  • Where: Europe
  • Why/Significance: Help redevelop Europe industrially and militaristically; European economy also began to recover; Communist power shrinks

North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)- mutual security among Western nations, can call on other member countries if attacked for assistance

  • Who/What: named after Secretary of State George Marshall; Offered European countries billions of dollars to rebuild after WWII; Would help contain communism because relief would be granted and there would be no need to seek assistance from Russia; Approximately $12 billion was given to Western Europe; Increased the European economy by 65%; If help wasn't given then another war could have begun.
  • When: June 1947
  • Where: Western Europe
  • Why/Significance: Set foreign policy; Prevented Soviets from expanding further; Rebuilt Europe

Dixiecrat Party

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McCarthyism

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Brown vs. the Board of Education

  • Who/What: African American child (female); landmark court case regarding segregation; Brown's parents wanted her to be able to attend a school that was much closer to her home, but this school was only for whites; she had to travel a long way to get to the school for African Americans; psychologists performed a test to see what damage was being done to the African American students known as the doll test, students answered questions about the dolls and the color of their skin; the school that the African Americans attended was grossly inadequate compared to the school for white students; Thurgood Marshall was the lawyer from the NAACP who took the case; it ended up going all the way to the SCOTUS
  • When: 1954
  • Where: Kansas
  • Why/Significance: Overturned Plessy vs. Ferguson, separate was deemed inherently unequal, overturned segregation for all public accommodations, still took quite some time to implement because SCOTUS does not have the power to implement anything, states had to implement, massive resistance to desegregation in the South
  • Who/What: Linda Brown was being forced to attend a school that was seven miles away from her home with no transportation being provided to her school although there was a school close to her home that was only for white students; NAACP sued on behalf of Linda Brown so that she would have access to the school closer to her; the case went all the way to the supreme court who ruled that "separate is inherently unequal"
  • When: 1954
  • Where: Linda Brown was from Topeka, KS; this ruling effected the entire US
  • Why/Significance: Overturned Plessy vs. Ferguson; Made "separate but equal" unconstitutional; shined a light on the psychological impact of segregation

Freedom Rides

  • Who/What: SNCC and CORE riding to the south in unsegregated groups, more specifically Birmingham, Alabama; they were traveling there to march about Civil Rights; Birmingham was known as being one of the worst locations regarding racism/violence towards African Americans; demonstrated nonviolent tactics in order to have the moral high ground; still met with violence by the police chief of Birmingham; many of these attacks on the protesters ended up on TV so that people around the country were able to see what was going on in the South
  • When: 1961
  • Where: North to South (Birmingham, AL was one of the main locations)
  • Why/Significance: Showed some of the tactics used to fight for desegregation; it was a form of taking sit-ins to the next level; also, a way to pressure the President to take a stand for desegregation; led to Martin Luther King, Jr. and the SCLC organizing a march in 1963

Black Power

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Tet Offensive

  • Who/What: Attacks all around Vietnam simultaneously by the Viet Cong on the Vietnamese New Year; Prior to these there was a cease fire call to allow the Vietnamese to celebrate; war had previously been fought on the countryside, but these were fought in the cities; attacked the embassy, government buildings, the capital, and military bases; 33,000 Viet Cong soldiers and 1600 American soldiers died
  • When: January 31, 1968
  • Where: Vietnam
  • Why/Significance: Support for the war in the United States crashed; Americans stopped believing what the government was saying about the war; Johnson announced he would not run for re-election

Vietnamization

  • Who/What: President Nixon wanted to slowly withdraw American troops from Vietnam and replace and train them with South Vietnamese soldiers; The belief was that training the South Vietnamese soldiers would enable them to protect themselves so that we could reduce and eventually bring home all of the American soldiers; This came as a response to multiple protests from the American people against the Vietnam War; This was his secret plan that he discussed during his campaigning for president.
  • When: 1969-1975
  • Where: Vietnam
  • Why/Significance: American soldiers were able to come home; Eventually South Vietnam fell to the North because of the lack of American presence

Hector P. Garcia

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The Pentagon Papers

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Watergate

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Iranian Revolution

  • Who/What: The Iranian Shah was overthrown by people of Iran; Ayatollah came out of exile and regained power; The Iranian people voted and changed their constitution to an Islamic nation which was a combination of a republic and a theocracy; the Shah came to the U.S. for cancer treatment; he eventually died.
  • When: 1979
  • Where:
  • Why/Significance: Led to the kidnapping of 52 U.S. citizens, both civilians and soldiers; allowing the Shah to come into the country caused conflict between Iran and the U.S.; affected the price of oil because an embargo was placed on oil/not allowed into the U.S.; oil/gas prices went up; caused gas shortage/long lines at gas stations; this set up the current relations between Iran and the U.S.

Supply-Side Economics

  • Who/What: President Reagan; Government has a reduced role in the economy; Cut taxes for the wealthy to promote investment into economy; AKA Reaganomics and Trickle Down Economics; Focused on the "supply" side- businesses, etc.; Was an attempt to help build up the economy by providing more opportunities through the spending wealthy; This was pretty much a failure; the poorest were effected negatively; the rate of homelessness rose
  • When: 1980-1992
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  • Why/Significance: Increase in the level of poverty; made it more difficult for people to climb up the economic scale

NAFTA

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Tiananmen Square

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L.A. Riots

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1. Between the end of World War II and the last decade of the 20th century, the rivalry between the United States and the Soviet Union known as the Cold War had a dramatic impact upon United Statesí history both at home and abroad. Do you believe that the Cold War had a greater effect on the country internationally or domestically? In your answer be sure to describe the nationís major international military engagements during this period as well as the social and political changes that the Cold War affected at home.

2. Since the end of the Civil War, African Americans had fought for greater rights and equality in the United States. These efforts reached a peak between the 1950s and the 1970s. Why do you think the movement had success at this time? In your answer describe the different types of tactics used by the various Civil Rights organizations from World War II through the 1970s as well as the changes that occurred in the Civil Rights movement during this period.