Grading guidelines from Dr. Costanzo:

For each ID you are looking for an adequate description of the item and a historical significance.

  • Typically, if they describe the item but give nothing resembling a significance, you should take 4 to 6 points off.
  • If they only have the significance but no real info about the item, take 8 points off.
    • Note that sometimes they donít come out and announce a significance. But you can tell that they are talking about the significant features of the item. Try to give them the benefit of the doubt.
  • Below Iíll list the key features and significance of each item that I have in mind. There could be other interpretations of significance. Keep your mind open to those that make sense.
  • A student does not have to get every single piece of info listed to earn 20 points. If the answer seems complete or goes in another direction but is correct, feel free to give full credit.
  • Simply judge whether they seem to know what they are talking about when describing the item and what its significance was.
  • If they did not write their answer in a paragraph format deduct 8 points.

A = 18-20 pts
B = 16-17 pts
C = 14-15 pts
D = 12-13 pts
F = 0-11 pts

James Thompson Callender was a newspaper editor and a member of the Jeffersonian party. During President Adams' administration, Callender was thrown into jail for violating the sedition act. After he was released, he wanted to become a postmaster because being postmaster would give him the ability to be at the center of the information. He would be able to decide which news was disseminated first. Callender decided to blackmail Thomas Jefferson for this position by threatening to publish an article about him. Jefferson refused to grant Callender the position of postmaster. In 1802, Callender released the story that Thomas Jefferson had fathered children with an enslaved woman named Sally Hemings, who also was the sister of Jefferson's wife. Three months after the story was published, Callender died by accidental drowning. James Thompson Callender is historically significant because he brought to light the relationship that Thomas Jefferson had with Sally Hemings. This also exposed this type of relationship between a master and their enslaved, which was never spoken about publicly previously.