When taking notes about these significant terms it may be helpful to make sure you are writing down information that answers the following questions:

  1. Who?
  2. What?
  3. When?
  4. Where?
  5. Why?
  6. How?
  7. Historical Significance (aka. So what? Why is this important?)

DISCLAIMER: THE INFORMATION ON THIS PAGE IS A COMPILATION OF CLASS ACTIVITIES THAT HAVE BEEN COMPLETED TO ASSIST YOU WITH PREPARING FOR THE EXAM. IN NO WAY IS THIS MEANT TO BE YOUR ONLY MEANS OF STUDY NOR HAS THIS INFORMATION BEEN CHECKED FOR ACCURACY. IT IS YOUR RESPONSIBILITY TO BE IN CLASS, STUDY, AND READ IN ORDER TO OBTAIN ALL THE KNOWLEDGE NEEDED TO BE SUCCESSFUL ON YOUR EXAMINATION.


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James T. Callender

  • Newspaper editor; Commonly published stories for Jefferson's party; attempted to blackmail Jefferson after he was released from prison for a position as post master; died mysteriously- drowned in 3 ft of water; death was ruled accidental- drunk; Published the article in 1802, died 3 months later; Questions arose about Jefferson's credibility; started a discussion which continues in present day
  • Member of Jeffersonian party; thrown into jail during Adams' administration; wrote article (sedition) that spoke negatively about the president; editor of the paper for the Jeffersonian party; wanted to be a post master so he could have control over news distribution; blackmailed Jefferson with the Sally Hemings story- children; died via drowning- story was that it was accidental
  • When: 1802- story came to light and 3 months later Callender died
  • Historical Significance: brought to light nefarious acts on the part of Jefferson, brought to light relationship between slave owners and their enslaved
  • Member of Jeffersonian party; Editor for Jeffersonian newspaper and wrote stories about the opposite party; Was thrown in jail for violating the sedition act; after released from jail wanted to become a post master; Being post master meant he got to be at the center of the information and decide what was disseminated first; blackmails Jefferson for this position; when Jefferson refused he then released the story about Jefferson's children with Sally Hemings
  • When: 1802- the story was released; 3 months later Callender died by drowning
  • Historical Significance: Story itself; still being talked about to this day; brought to light the relationship between slave owner and the enslaved

Hopewell

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Cahokia

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Toscanelli Map

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Columbian Exchange:

  • Who/What: When Columbus landed in the New World (North & South Americas) there was an exchange of people, animals, plants, disease, and ideas/customs between the Old and New World; The diseases that came from the Old World were typhus, small pox, and measles; The New World disease that spread to the Old World was syphilis; The New World brought corn, potatoes, squash, and tomatoes to the Old World; this caused a population boom in the Old World; The Old World brought wheat; Horses and pigs came from the Old World to the New World; Christian missionaries came to the New World.
  • When: 1492
  • Historical Significance: First major interaction between the Old and New Worlds; drastically shifts populations in Europe (increase) and in the Old World (decrease); brought the Old and New World together; brought animals to the Americas that are considered very important; brought current staple crops to Europe

Reconquista

  • Who/What: A religious conflict; Spain fought to win their land (Iberian Peninsula) back from the Muslims; this lasted for 700 years
  • When: 790-1492
  • Historical Significance: Motivated Spain to send out missionaries to convert the people in the New World to Christianity; Gave the King confidence to expand the Spanish empire; this was a factor in Spain's decision to fund Christopher Columbus' voyage

Tenochtitlan

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Encomiendas

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Fur Trade

  • Who/What: French and the Native Americans established trade; the French wanted beaver pelts to make hats; the pelts made the hats water proof, soft, and warm; the Native Americans were getting fire arms, horses, metalwears, blankets, and cooking kettles; approximately 2,000 people were sent to New France by 1650; the French traders lived with and took on some of the Native American culture; this helped them establish more trade; they took Native American wives and wore Native American clothing; French Catholic missionaries also came to convert the Native Americans
  • Where: Trade routes were in Canada
  • When: early 1600's/17th century
  • Historical Significance: Beaver population was hunted to near extinction, and this also effected the ecosystem since there were not as many dams being built; overhunting the beaver caused tribes to move which then caused bad relations among the different tribes; those tribes that had established usually fared better because they had fire arms; connected the Native Americans to the global economy/start of global trade; Native Americans were also effected by disease brought over by the French.

Virginia Company

  • Who/What: A stock company that had investors who wanted to explore the New World for gold; They sent primarily young, single men who were trained in different trades, such as blacksmiths; The settlement that was established was called Jamestown after King James; Jamestown was a death trap because of the location which was swampy and the water was brackish; this also led to disease (dysentery, malaria) and starvation; They did not know how to farm nor did they want to; There were conflicts with the Native Americans; Of the first 6,000 people sent there only 1,200 survived; eventually the Virginia Company was closed by the King due to the high mortality rate and lack of revenue.
  • When: 1607
  • Historical Significance: This led to the first settlement in the New World.

Indentured Servitude:

  • Who/What: Primarily poor people from Europe sold themselves into servitude for a period of 5 to 7 years for exchange passage to the New World; the wealthy farmers were bringing them for labor on their tobacco farms in order to obtain more land via the headright system; after their term was up people were given freedom dues of tools, clothing, and smaller items; indentured servants had a high death rate; people typically sought out young males; most were single; there were rules about getting married if you were an indentured servant- typically you could not until you were done with your indentured
  • When: 1620's (17th century-18th century)
  • Where: Virginia, Chesapeake area
  • Historical Significance: Ultimately, a division of the classes led to slavery being a more desirable approach to labor; increased the population in the New World; led to Bacon's Rebellion

Bacon's Rebellion

  • Who/What: People living on the frontier who were former indentured servants disagreed with the governor who said nobody could have more land; the governor had trade relationships with the Native Americans; Nathaniel Bacon, who also was the governor's cousin, formed a militia with the frontier people and attacked the Native Americans; Native Americans were attacking the settlers who lived on the frontier; also went into the town and rebelled; Nathaniel Bacon was in charge of the settlement for a bit before he died of dysentery; this only stopped when the King sent people to intervene; this showed the class system that was starting in the new settlements
  • When: 1675
  • Where: Jamestown, VA
  • Historical Significance: This led to a shift from using indentured servants to slavery as a labor force.

Great Migration:

  • Who/What: A group of Puritans left England to go to the Netherlands due to the desire for more religious freedom. They specifically were struggling with the belief that the Anglican church was too close to Catholicism. Their desire was to purify the Church of England. Then a group of 400 Puritans traveled to Massachusetts and established the Massachusetts Bay Colony. They first landed in Plymouth. The following year 700 more came to the colony. In the next two decades 20,000 more came to the colony. Saw themselves as "The City on the Hill". They wanted to be a perfect example to the Church of England of Christianity. They came in family units, and they set up their colony as more of community with a Church at the center of town, a school, and small family farms on the outskirts.
  • When: 1629 is when it began
  • Where: Massachusetts Bay Colony
  • Historical Significance: Vast increase of population; theocratic (theocracy) government was established; first break away from the Church of England

Roger Williams:

  • Who/What: Puritan minister; decided that the Church of England and the King were too corrupt so the Puritan Church should completely separate itself; He disagreed with the Puritan beliefs about salvation - he believed it could be received from alone instead of predestination; Because he spoke out against the King and the Church he was charged with sedition and heresy; He was exiled from Plymouth Colony as punishment; purchased land from the Native Americans which was the first time this happened; established Rhode Island; separated Church and State in his colony
  • When: 1691 - during the Great Awakening
  • Where: New England/Plymouth and Rhode Island
  • Historical Significance: founded Rhode Island; showed weaknesses to a theocracy; early model of our present day government with separation of Church and State; purchased land from the Native Americans which was the first time this happened

Great Awakening

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Ben Franklin

  • Who/What: Newspaper editor for the Philadelphia Gazette; founded the Philosophical Society; established the first lending library; politician and lobbyist; he helped people start their own newspaper by helping them fund it; he created a network of information between various cities, especially during the Great Awakening
  • When: Covering the Great Awakening during the 1730s to 1750s
  • Where: Philadelphia
  • Historical Significance: Helped spurn information dissemination across the colonies

Middle Passage

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Law of Descent

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Fort Necessity

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Seven Years' War

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Pontiac's Rebellion

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Attach:Fall2015Exam1TraidCEssay1Key.doc
1. Which type of European colonization system do you believe had the most significant impact on the history of North America: Spanish, French, or British? In your answer, describe the colonization and settlement practices of all three empires and explain why you believe your choice had the largest impact.

2. To what extent do you feel that the British colonists in North America saw themselves as united as a single cultural, economic, and political entity at the end of the Seven Years’ War? In your answer discuss the factors you feel united the colonists and the factors that separated them in the era between the initial English colonial settlements early in the 1600s and the end of the Seven Years’ War in 1763. (Note that this question is not about the American Revolution or the Revolutionary Era. You won’t want to waste your time writing about those subjects.)