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Discuss Sources exercise from Tuesday

Terms review for History Exam

REMINDER: Your History Exam 1 is on Thursday, February 16th


Chinese Exclusion Act 1882: law passed in 1882, California,excludes any Chinese immigration into the United States, first passed for 10 years and then renewed for 10 years until it becomes law in 1912 and law lasts until 1943; law is repealed in 1943 because Chinese are the Americans' allies in WWII against Japan; by that time the Chinese population had declined by 40%. Prevents the Chinese already living in the United States for applying for citizenship. In their new Constitution they took away Chinese voting rights and state can't spend money hiring Chinese--courts rule these news laws as unconstitutional BUT these laws show that Californians don't like Chinese people; don't like them because Chinese willing to work for lower wages in mining and railroad building. THIS IS IMPORTANT BECAUSE this is the first time America bans a group of immigrants based on their race/nationality. After this, citizenship in America will become based on whiteness.

Homestead Act: passed in 1862 during the Civil War by the Republican-controlled Congress, passed to encourage Americans to move and settle West. Gives 160 acres in the Great Plains to anyone who paid a registration fee, lived on the land for 5 years, and improved the land by farming and building a house. Americans move West by the millions and organize politically so they apply for statehood and the United States gets 9 more states

Dawes Act of 1887: 1887, attempt to corporate Native Americans into white society (assimilation), builds on success of Homestead Act; Native Americans given 160 acre plot of land to farm, land comes from reservation reserve. BUT the land given to Native Americans only totals 1/3 of the reservation land, other 2/3 sold to settlers coming West. This is not tribal ownership of land, this is individual ownership of land which was contrary to the beliefs of land usage/ownership of most Native American tribes. THIS IS IMPORTANT BECAUSE this meets the goals of reformers by changing their lifestyles and keeping them stationary as farmers AND government able to reacquire the land given for reservations to sell or build railroads and towns

Ghost Dance: thought of by Chief Sitting Bull of the Sioux tribe as a new religious practice; trying to form a new religious practice that integrated parts of Christianity; believed in coming of Messiah who would make the Europeans leave North America and bring back deceased Native Americans who had been killed by Europeans; gained many followers; U.S. military (Bureau of Indian Affairs) is scared of the practice of the Ghost Dance because they feared Native Americans coming together and rising up against the military. Try to arrest Sitting Bull in December 1890 (b/c he the leader of Ghost Dance) shooting starts and Sitting Bull is killed; few weeks later Native Americans traveling to new plot of land near Wounded Knee Creek; military gets word of Ghost Dance ceremonies happening there and goes to stop them, 250 Native Americans (mostly women and children) and 25 American soldiers killed at the Battle of Wounded Knee; THIS IS IMPORTANT BECAUSE this is the last event of the Indian Wars

Pullman Strike: 1894 in Pullman near Chicago; Pullman city made and controlled by Pullman company that made fancy railroad cars; everything fine until company cut salaries of employees by 25% but didn't lower rent rates for houses in city; this leads to Eugene Debbs organizing strike of railroad car workers; Debbs organizes strike nationally which makes government realizes this will affect the economy so President Cleveland send 2,000 troops to break up the strike; Pullman Company hires new workers to replace striking workers; Debbs is arrested for organizing strike; THIS IS IMPORTANT BECAUSE this shows how the government supported business and companies over the rights of workers and unions. Workers rights won't change, still make under $400 per year which is under poverty line, shows workers they are replaceable and easily fireable

Vertical and Horizontal Integration: vertical integration is when a company buys all the steps in a process so buying cattle farms, slaughter houses, railroad cars to transport meat, distribution houses to sell meat; this essentially means they control every part of the process and control the price--no competition in market; could be good for the consumer because price could be cheaper (cut out middle man) because profit of selling not divided by multiple companies BUT it's not good for the consumer because one company will control and entire product and begin raising prices with no repercussion of competition. Horizontal integration is when one company buys the competitors in a certain market; example is Rockefeller with Standard Oil--he eventually owns every oil company on the East Coast so all oil comes from a Standard Oil company; this is bad because there is no price competition and prices often increase