Terms Review for Exam 3

Review History terms for Exam 3 (Final Exam)

The Cold War: 1947-1991; Truman, Eisenhower, Johnson and Nixon on U.S. side; tensions between the United States and the Soviet Union over the spread of Communism; U.S. opposes the spread of Communism and Soviet Union supports spread of Communism; tension on nuclear weapons which is called the arms race; competition to see who is first to space this is called the space race; called “cold” because no “hot” fighting between U.S. and S.U.; instead a series of proxy wars are fought in which the U.S. and S.U. support different sides; examples are the Korean War and the Vietnam War; fall of Berlin Wall (1989) and Soviet Union breaks apart (1991) and both of these signal the end of the Cold War; this is important because this is a fight for supremacy in the world (economic, social, political), influences foreign policy decisions for half a century

Marshall Plan: June 1947; George C. Marshall (Secretary of State); plan to give money ($2 billion) to rebuild Europe because it had been destroyed by WWII; give money to build up European nations to encourage trade between them and U.S., to restore the prosperity of Europe (for U.S. benefit), to make sure European countries DID NOT turn to Communism (Soviet Union) for help or economic/political system; Marshall Plan is important because it works—European nations do not turn to Communism and are able to rebuild their economies; criticized in U.S. but will benefit U.S. as well because we reestablish trade relations and therefore make money in U.S.

Dixiecrat Party: 1948; didn’t want to change segregation in the South; led by Strom Thurmond (SC); causes massive change in the two political parties; mostly Democrats from the South who are mad about desegregation from Brown v. Board of Education; will protest policies by breaking away from Democratic Party and forming their own political party; fought for states’ rights, pro-labor, important because the Dixiecrats are able to gain enough power within the Democratic Party to influence the 1948 election by nominating Strom Thurmond (Governor from South Carolina) to challenge Truman candidacy

McCarthyism?: early 1950s; term for the Red Scare which was a time when people who were not pro-democracy or pro-government were rooted out and accused of being Communists; named after Senator Joe McCarthy? who led the investigations on people accused of being Communists; HUAC (House Un-American Activities Committee); this is important because this is an example of how the Cold War affects people within the United States; idea that anything associated with Communism or Soviet Union was bad and needed to be punished; played on fears of Red Scare and Cold War; still affects perception today of Russia and Communism

Brown v. Board of Education: 1954; lawsuit brought by Brown family against Topeka, Kansas School district challenging segregation in schools; victory for the NAACP; challenges Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) which established idea of "separate but equal"; Brown v. Board ruling says that segregating public facilities based on race was unconstitutional based on the 14th Amendment; this is important because this leads to the desegregation of schools, water fountains, movie theaters, etc (public facilities); also essentially the beginning of the Modern Civil Rights Movement

Freedom Rides: 1961; mixture of black and white young college students riding on public buses to protest lack of voting rights for black people in the South; using bus system to travel to the South to register voters and get rid of poll taxes, literacy tests, grandfather clauses; met at the border of Alabama and told to go back; violence, bus set on fire, Freedom Riders beaten; important because this shows the resistance to African American civil rights and voting rights, will also lead to the protests in Birmingham, AL (one of the most dangerous places for African Americans in the South; MLK will lead marches there to protest for voting rights); will help lead to the Voting Rights Act of 1965; also leads to international pressure (in context of Cold War) for government to intervene in civil rights fight

Black Power: late 1960s; Black Panther Party formed in Oakland, CA by Huey Newton and Bobby Seale; Malcolm X also important establishing figure for Black Power Movement; pledged to protect African American community with violence if necessary; reject non-violent approach of MLK and early civil rights movement; idea is black pride and pride in heritage; against Vietnam War because ideas of freedom and democracy that was being spread in Vietnam not practiced in America (black people excluded from equal rights) also because black soldiers were dying at a disproportionate rate (to their overall population) than white soldiers; say that the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and Voting Rights Act of 1965 still did not create social and economic equality (only legal classified equality)

Tet Offensive: series of attacks that happen in January and February of 1968 at strategic points around South Vietnam; North Vietnamese and Viet Cong use guerrilla warfare tactics to accomplish attacks; American soldiers are able to push North Vietnamese and re-take lost territory (so a military victory); in America this looks like a loss because of massive deaths, intensity of fighting, surprise attack (American military unaware), and fact that President Johnson and General Westmoreland had said America was winning war and Tet Offensive shows America clearly not "winning" war; television news reports play a large part in exposing truth about fighting in Vietnam; leads to reduced support for war ; *turning point in Vietnam War in America because public opinion about the war in American begins to change**

Vietnamization: Richard Nixon's plan in 1969 to turn the war back over to the South Vietnamese; withdraws 60,000 U.S. troops in 1971; vows to bring 85% of the over 500,000 American troops back home; moves the troops still in Vietnam secretly to Cambodia and Laos which is illegal because he did not receive Congressional approval to move troops into other countries; important because this is an expansion of the war (before the draw-down); Nixon works out secret cease-fire with North Vietnam in 1973, U.S. leaves Vietnam at the end of 1973, and North Vietnam invades and takes capital city of Saigon in 1975