Discuss the importance of research as learning

Research for academic purposes vs. research for inquiry

Introduce short research project

Knowledge Practices

Learners who are developing their information literate abilities

  • formulate questions for research based on information gaps or on reexamination of existing, possibly conflicting, information;
  • determine an appropriate scope of investigation;
  • deal with complex research by breaking complex questions into simple ones, limiting the scope of investigations;
  • use various research methods, based on need, circumstance, and type of inquiry;
  • monitor gathered information and assess for gaps or weaknesses;
  • organize information in meaningful ways;
  • synthesize ideas gathered from multiple sources;
  • draw reasonable conclusions based on the analysis and interpretation of information.

  • Reminder: your history quiz over chapter 16 is due by Sunday night at 11:59 p.m.
  • Reminder: you have a discussion post due by Sunday night at 11:59 p.m.


Manhattan Project: 1939, began in Chicago, $2 billion project, top secret, location changes from University of Chicago to Los Alamos, most of the scientists involved were German refugees, development of nuclear bomb, lead scientists was Robert Oppenheimer; this is important BECAUSE it led to the creation of the nuclear bomb which the United States would later drop on Japan in Hiroshima and Nagasaki; also important BECAUSE this is the beginning of the Cold War tensions between the Soviet Union and the United States--arms race

Radical Reconstruction: Northerners angry with the South because Reconstruction had been conducted too leniently towards ex-Confederates; 1866-1877; Radical Republicans in Congress in charge of Radical Reconstruction; question about how the country will be put back together; divided South into 5 military districts to keep closer eye on Southern leaders (controlled by military) who had been ignoring rights of freed black people by not letting them vote, letting them own land, lynching of black people; introduce Civil Rights Act which leads to 14th and 15th Amendments; this is important BECAUSE Radical Republicans trying to reunite the country and sets up the framework for future civil rights movement and civil rights gains for African Americans (and other groups).

14th Amendment: grants citizenship to people born in U.S. or naturalized (intended to apply to freed slaves); guaranteed equal protection under the law which means things like life, liberty, and property, no unlawful seizure of property, made Bill of Rights apply to *all* citizens; made the Bill of Rights apply to state governments as well as federal government; undo the 3/5th Compromise and Dred Scott Ruling (denied slaves right to escape into the North, denied that *any* black person was a citizen of the U.S.); this is important BECAUSE it is a Constitutional Amendment which means it's almost impossible to change or repeal it; going to set up the foundation for later civil rights movements

Freedmen's Bureau: set up to help freed black people in the South to make their lives better; established schools, churches, help find families, help get jobs, tried to push blacks and whites to work together, tried to help them with legal matters (so they wouldn't be manipulated); run by army, headed by Oliver Otis Howard, established in 1865; helped by religious and abolitionist groups from the North; this is important BECAUSE it works to a degree because it establishes over 4,000 schools and 1,000 churches; changed gender roles (more traditional), child will attend school (both black and poor white children), increases school attendance rating and literacy rates; marriages recognized as legal

Sharecroppers: in the South, normally on big plantations; during Reconstruction and directly after Reconstruction (1868-1890s); system of labor where black farmers given land owned by white property owner; black farmer must give portion of profit or crop to white land owner; land owners take advantage of farmers who can't read and write by making them sign bad contracts; this keeps poor farmers in a perpetual state of poverty because they don't make enough profit to ever buy their own land; because they are poor they can get loans from land owners but interest rates and supplies interest rates increase and take all the profit from sharecroppers

Election of 1876: Hayes (R) vs. Tilden (D); Tilden wins both electoral and popular vote; Hayes contests votes in FL, LA, SC; Hayes contests the election which means it goes to Congress who creates a commission to monitor votes; votes equal 7-7; one delegate replaced who votes for Hayes; both candidates agree that in exchange for Hayes becoming POTUS he (Hayes) would end Reconstruction and military occupation in the SOuth?; known as the Compromise of 1877; this is important BECAUSE it brings and end to Reconstruction