Assessment should look at how the modes react to one another, how effectively they work together. Never a fan of rubrics, shouldn't all grading of verbal, written, or visual information be based upon the effectiveness of relaying the message. If it makes sense, then it has succeeded. If nobody can figure out what the message is, it has failed. Also, why do we worry so much over assessment anyway? I have constantly thought that the handing out of grades has more to do with punishing those who do not meet our (or class) expectations than it has to do with helping students improve. Once the grade hits the page, teachers become judges and not coaches.


  • pictures (portray things located on a lower level of abstractness)
  • symbols (portray something located at a highre level of abstractness)
  • signs (stand for something but do not necessarily look like that something)

pornography example



  • linguistic message
  • denoted image
  • connoted image

images have more than one signified - linguistic messages fix these signifieds

space is political - visuals are political

  • How can one get away from the political???