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Article Analysis
Jeet K Mishra
3rd October, 2006
* 29 October, 2006- revised

* Craig L Browdy, Delma Bratvold, Alvin D. Stokes, and Robins P. Mcintosh;
* Perspectives on the application of closed shrimp culture systems;
* Journal of World Aquaculture Society.

*This is a review article in which it discussed about different feeding strategies for penaeid shrimps in a zero exchange shrimp production system. It also reviewed some of the previous article that focused on the role of reduced water exchange on water chemistry, shrimp feeding, commercial application of the zero exchange, pond microbial communities and water chemistry.

According to our previous discussion '''Tuft, Bryne and Greenzweig''' and '''Oliu, Brusaw & Alred''' where they suggested summarizing the data-set in the form of images and graphs to make it easier to understand and interpret the complex data set. In this article I found the similar trend where the authors were used the images and bar diagram to explain the production figures between the treatments. Although, they use any line chart (graph) which is suppose to be more effective in term of explaining the water quality data but summarized in the table.

The article is addressed to specific audience those related to marine biology and environment science. There were not many technical details in this article. I believe this article could be used by general public.

'''*Main points are:'''
1. Influence of shrimp culture on environmental pollution.
2. Feeds are the main source for pollution in culture water
3. Article emphasized on minimizing the water uses.
4. Minimizing water uses reduces environmental impacts.

'''*Main Summary contents:'''
1. Controlling feeding in shrimp culture
2. Maintaining water chemistry
3. Maintaining microbial communities that responsible for water chemistry
4. A methodology or culture practice that enhances shrimp growth and survival

'''Article summary notes''': [1]. The environmental sustainability of aquaculture in general and shrimp farming in particular has received increasing attention in recent years. [2]. Discharge of nutrient rich effluent from intensive culture system can contribute to eutrophication of natural water system, potentially impacting both natural and biota and local culture system. [3]. The authors focused in this review paper about a culture methodology that can reduce discharge of nutrient rich water from the shrimp culture facilities. [4]. Zero discharge culture practice is a recent culture trend in current shrimp culture industry. According to this author, in this process the nutrients from the culture facilities were filtered and recycled back to culture water. [5]. The recycling process has been taking care by microbial process mainly autotrophs and heterotrophs. [6]. The autotrophs used the inorganic nutrient and manufacture the organic compound which is the main source of energy in the food chain. [7]. The heterotrophs used the dead autotrophs (algae) and breakdown the organic compound and convert them back to inorganic nutrients.

The authors also emphasized on the commercial feasibility of recycling process and found to be very effective and significantly affect the cost of production. Recycling of nutrient can reduce the use of high protein diet in shrimp culture so the cost of production will reduce. When culture water is going to be recycled, the pumping cost will be reduced.

*'''Evidence supporting thesis/theses or main points''':
As mentioned earlier, this article summarized its results in the form of tables and graphs which is in consistence with the recommendation of , Brusaw & .

Table 1 (page 22); Table 2 (page 23); Figure 1 (Page 28).

Table 1 showed the production figures of using high protein diet in normal culture system and low protein diets in zero exchange system. The conclusion of this table is better growth and feed conversation ratio achieved in low protein diet and zero exchange system.

Table 2 summarized the selected water quality indicators between the two treatments. Study conducted in different time and different locations. In conclusion there were no statistical significance differences between the two treatments.

Figure 1 summarized the amount of feed applied in two treatments and the production rate in Belize Aquaculture System, Waddle mariculture system and Texas A & M Shrimp mariculture system. In all cases production were remained higher in zero exchange system.
Effectiveness of the Article:

This article reviews some of the recent work done by different workers in the filed of shrimp culture and its impacts on natural system. The results obtained in this article can be used in the field of shrimp culture. Importantly, the authors emphasized more about the microbial communities and maintaining optimum water quality in pond water by these microbes are very impressive and practical in commercial application. Another topic that author highlighted is managing waste in zero water exchange facilities.