- Inner Speech-the uncontextualized transformation of thought into language. N. Quintero
- Writer-based prose- is one that often omits contextual information or elaboration that an audience would need or includes information that an audience would not be able to understand without further explanation. N. Quintero
- Informed reader- is both the communal reader of the discourse community and as individual real reader who is actively engaged in understanding the text.N. Quintero
- Pathos--the appeal to the emotions of the audience, ethos--appeal to the credibility of the speaker, logos--the appeal to logic and reason (110) Rebecca L.
- Discourse community: consists of members who share language, values, generic conventions, and a set of expectations of the requirements for an effective text. Mary G.
- I-It Relation: how the writer views the subject. "the writers attempt to to generalize an event, Peyton C."
- I-you Relation: how the writer views the reader--as described by James Moffett--R. Chanel R.
- Rhetorical Stance - what makes the differences between effective communication and mere wasted effort...a stance which depends on discovering and maintaining in any writing situation a proper balance among the three elements that are at work in any communicative effort, the available arguments about the subject itself, the interests and peculiarities of the audience, and the voice, the implied character, of the speaker (Angela R.)
- Piagetian model: Claims that initially we are private, non-social individuals. Because of this, we must focus on the "need to learn to enter into viewpoints other than our own"(134). -- Elizabeth H.
- The Social Perspective* The third perspective on audience, proposed by Barry Kroll, which is views "writing as social interaction...that emphasizes the importances of peer response and cooperative learning." (121) -Annastacia S.
- Pathos - the appeal to the emotions of the audience (110) Nicholas M.
- Ethos - appeal to the credibility of the speaker (110) Nicholas M.
- Logos - the appeal to logic and reason (110) Nicholas M.
- Rhetorical Perspective - "addressed to a speaker whom one wants to persuade, a process that means finding out as much as possible about this particular audience" (121). Alyssa D.
- '''Cognitive Perspective-"viewed the ability to consider the ideas and views of others-that is, to move beyond the egocentricity of early childhood-reflected a more developed form of thinking(111). Tabitha P.
- Egocentric Prose - or "writer-based prose" characterizes writing that does not consider audience. Often excludes vital or clarifying information that readers would need in order to make total sense of the text (111). - John H.
- Reader-based Prose- prose that considers an audience and provides information and clarification (111). - John H.
- Poesis-concerning creation or poetry Merriam Websters Dictionary. -Qimin Sheng
- Freewriting- private writing for the sake of the self but not necessarily to the self. It is used to foment ideas, exorcise feelings, etc. Elbow 139-Qimin sheng
- Moffett's Curriculum -based on a Universe of Discourse-"moves the student from concrete experience to abstract idea, and from the self to the world." "The teacher's role within this universe is to construct writing assignments that enable students to move in this progression and to gain consciousness of how different audiences require different conceptual and textual strategies" (118) Andrea P.
*The Fictionalized Audience- An audience created by the author of the text through the use of subtle "cues" and suggestions. Clarke quotes Douglas Parks defining this creation as embodying "a complex set of conventions, estimations, implied responses, and attitudes" (113). The value of fictionalizing an audience is still hotly debated. Daniel D.
- Naming moves- involve particular pronouns, such as you/your or we/our. "Naming moves" specify an intended audience, enabling other audiences to realize that the text was not intended for them and to situate themselves in relatino to the writer and the intened audience (124). -Myra B.
Audience according to Plato is characterized by the "'the type of speech appropriate to each type of soul' (1952, p.147)." (Ana Q.)
redefining rhetoric--"the use of language as a symbolic means of inducing cooperation in beings that by nature respond to symbols"
(Kenneth Burke, chapter 4, p. 111). Margaret E.G.