• Christopher Columbus - searching for trade route to Asia; thought he found it (even when he died), lied to his crew about distance to "Asia", most people thought it was too far to cross the Pacific because of supplies needed, he was convinced the world was smaller than calculated, told crew they hadn't gone as far as they had. Gave us the label of "Indians" because he thought he had made it to Asia,
  • Columbian Exchange - named after Columbus; trade over Atlantic; people, diseases, and food involved (not just commerce); gave people access to crops not seen before, corn could be grown in worse soil, potatoes in colder climates, fed more Europeans!; animals: pigs, horses, stuff; changed natives' way of life, especially because they were dying from new diseases, but also, trade gave them access to new stuff.
  • Reconquista - reconquering of Spain to reclaim territory from Muslims (Moors) on Iberian Peninsula (Spain, Portugal, etc.); religious movement, based on reestablishing Christianity; shaped the way they interacted with the natives (they got really good at religious conversion); Cortes followed this pattern in dealing with Aztecs
  • Tenochtitlan - biggest city (150k people, bigger than European cities) in Aztec society (present day Mexico); will later become Mexico City; built in a marshy valley; taken over by Hernan Cortes; advanced infrastructure including bridges, roads, IRRIGATION (allowed them support/feed more people), sanitation; ruled by Montezuma; interconnected with many other smaller towns/villages in the area (had commerce!); distinct heirarchy, demonstrated in buildings/structures within the city; Cortes took it forcefully, using their enemies in the area against them; took Montezuma hostage for a while; ransomed Montezuma, then killed him
  • Pueblo Revolt - first time natives demonstrated the ability to resist colonizing power. Spanish missionaries were expelled from what is now southwestern US, they revolted because they felt the imposition of Christianity conflicted with their own cultural identity; Spanish ended up retaking town, but made Spanish more wary about native ability to fight.
  • Fort Caroline - French fort in Florida, which was Spanish territory; Spanish overtook it; They were taking trade goods away from Spanish, so Spanish booted them out, established Spanish's control over South and middle Americas, caused establishment of Port Royal by French
  • Fur Trade - french trading guns and other valuables to natives in exchange for beaver pelts;
  • Jamestown Company -
  • Indentured Servitude -
  • Bacon's Rebellion - Bacon was fighting against natives;
  • Great Migration - Puritans come to New England to escape persecution from "lame" Church of England
  • Roger Williams - established Rhode Island; was too Puritan for the Puritans (was totally anti-Church of England AND English king), was exiled from Mass. Bay colony for sedition and heresy because he didn't even recognize the charter given to them by the king to establish the colony!)
  • Great Awakening - religious revival in New World (and Old World), most recognizable figure was George Whitefield who was famous for sermons that were emotional and theatrical; caused cultural convergence in the New World because it brought together people with different religious experiences and gave them a shared experience to relate and discuss and write about
  • Ben Franklin -
  • Fort Necessity -
  • Pontiac's Rebellion -
  • 7 Years War -
  • James Thompson Callendar - Sally Hemings case, illegal to write about politicians (sedition), JTC tried to blackmail Jefferson about his involvement with his slaves (sexually), JTC was a journalist and used his newspaper to spread rumors about political figures, was in and out of jail, wanted to Jefferson to give him Post Master of Richmond position (so that he could get information for his publications), shows that relationships between slaves and owners was often complex and misrepresented publicly.
  • Hopewell - named after farmer on who's land they discovered evidence of native civilization, such as pottery, bones, animal remains that weren't local, arrowheads, shell beads, stones and metals, which all signified trade routes and interaction between distant groups of natives. Demonstrated that there was a significant system of trade and organization, contrary to colonizer's perceptions that natives were uncivilized and barbaric.
  • Middle Passage -
  • Law of Descent - status of slaves comes from mother's side; gave males the freedom to have indiscretion because they weren't responsible for slave kids, increased subordination of both slaves and women; ensured future generations of slaves (protecting their investments); lack of reliable paternity identification prevented mothers from "freeing" their kids by naming a white father; changed idea of racial based slavery (even part-white kids were slaves if their mom was)

Essay Grid