- Christopher Columbus - lucky he didn't die because the Earth really is as big as everyone thought it was. Was searching for an alternate trade route, eliminate the middle man, sea trade was cheaper, but travelling around Africa was a loooong trip. died thinking he had found Asia. made 4 trips. Columbian Exchange named for him because his trips instigated it. term "indians" comes from his mistake about who they actually were.
- Columbian Exchange - exchange of goods (food, animals, people, diseases, etc.) between Europe, New World, and Africa; blended cultures, introduced good and bad things to native society, established new trade routes and unprecedented transfer of stuff; introduction of slavery to the New World settlements; also, brought new crops to Old World, which allowed easier production of food for more people back in Europe.
- Reconquista -
- Tenochtitlan - Aztec metropolis, largest civilization hub in New World, fought over by Spanish (Cortes), interaction between natives and Spanish was complex: Spanish had guns and horses, which natives saw as powerful, natives had huge population (even bigger than Spanish cities), agriculture w/ irrigation, language barrier. Shipwrecked Spaniard who had been enslaved by Aztecs, was returned to Cortes and played a big role in their interactions (had learned their language), also, Cortes was given a translator (Dona Maria, also helped in conquest) Cortes wasn't supposed to invade, just explore (disobeyed orders), Spanish gained much riches from conquest of Aztecs.
- Pueblo Revolt - Spanish took over Pueblo cities and converted them to Christianity/Catholicism by setting up missions in their communities; natives kicked them out because they didn't feel like following the new religion and culture was compatible with their identity; Spanish were able to move back in and take some territory, but they had a new respect for the strength and ability to organize in resistance to the colonizers
- Fort Caroline
- Fur Trade - make hats. fancy hats. super important hats. traded goods with native Americans, who had lots of beaver pelts at their disposal. almost caused extinction of beavers which would have totally messed up the ecosystem; natives got resources like guns, knives, precious metals, pots, pans, spoons; upsets balance between native tribes; natives didn't trust colonizers initially; trade made a big difference in survival for French, but also changed their lifestyle and thereby caused some assimilation with natives (much different from other colonizers in the area)
- Jamestown (Virginia) Company - English corporate venture (they were there to make money); realized that tobacco was a good cash crop, became primary source of income; people died regularly (dysentery, mosquito-borne nastiness, lack of food, etc.); not many farmers come over because craftsmen wanted to make money, not grow crops; was first successful English colony; did NOT get along with natives (mostly);
- Indentured Servitude -
- Bacon's Rebellion - Bacon was trying to expand into native land because they needed better land to be able to plant food and establish themselves in the interior; tried to convince Jamestown Governor to form army to repel natives, but Gov. disagrees; Bacon fights on his own (and is successful), but Gov. still wont help him, so Bacon and his homies burn the town and kill some of the people that lived there; Bacon dies too (from dysentery); British reestablishes Jamestown, but shows that indentured servitude wasn't viable because they couldn't give them enough land and natives weren't cooperative; lead to more slavery.
- Great Migration - 1630s-40s, people left England to travel to Massachusetts Bay; Puritan population; wanted to start a community based on religion; resisted persecution from Church of England, which set bar for admittance very low, while Puritans wanted limited membership; believed in "visible saints," which were people who believed in predestination (before you're born, God knows if you're going up or down), so they acted as though they might be saintly, just in case.
- Roger Williams -
- Great Awakening -
- Ben Franklin -
- Fort Necessity -
- Pontiac's Rebellion - Pontiac was native chief who rebelled against British colonists and united native tribes. took 8 forts from British, wasn't able to keep them; led to Proclomation of 1763, which prevented colonies form expanding past Appalachian Mountains; reestablished trade between natives and British; showed British monarchy that maintaining colonies was expensive!
- 7 Years War -
- James Thompson Callendar - newspaper journalist that exposed Jefferson's indiscretion with his slave, Sally Hemings; slave "relations" were socially unacceptable, but this conflict showed that they existed, maybe frequently!
- Hopewell - mound builders (~120 different organized settlements); Mississipians were trading over great distances; trade network of precious metals, shell beads, arrowheads, ideas, other valuable goods; shows that natives were much more civilized than first colonizers believed them to be
- Law of Descent -
- Middle Passage -
- Cahokia - largest native civilization in what is now US; expanded rapidly and had centralized power; had ritual sacrifices; showed system of power based around complex engineering and system of organized agriculture; eventually got so big that internal conflict ensued because of limited resources and fighting about they would be distributed