figurative language, imagery, writing that makes you think (irony), description, visualization, keeping reader interested, writing that has a message, broaden our perspective and show more than one side, multiple layers of meaning, achieve meaning with little wording, ability to summarize in a few words, readings that allow people to relate, connection with audience, grabs audiences attention from beginning, organized and has flow, get reader to see things in a way that they haven't seen it before, dialogue and experience from other sources, credibility, motivational, persuasion, keeping audience in mind when writing, good examples and evidence to back up what your saying, good grammar and sentence construction, inside information, sense of anticipation, keep reader interested