Townshend Acts, 1767- This was a tax Britain put on the American colonies on goods imported into the colonies, such as paper, paint, glass, and tea. They did this so they had a way to pay for imperial officials like custom officers, governors, and appointed office holders. The colonists renewed their boycott against Britians non-importation goods, where women played an important role. This cause Britian to lose more money than they would have gotten with the taxes, and repealed the Act in 1770, except for the tax on tea. -Gabby

Boston Massacre - About 4,000 soldiers were sent into Boston, with the law saying that the colonials were required to take care of them. 15,000-16,000 colonists were living in Boston at this time. In 1770, there was an argument between the soldiers and the colonists. A soldier hit a kid in the head with the butt of his rifle. Snowballs were then thrown at them by the colonists, causing the soldiers to aim their guns at the crowd. Then, a group of sailors come to the scuffle weilding clubs. A soldiers gun goes off, leading to the rest of the soldiers guns going off. This is the Boston Massacre. Crispus Attucks was a black man, he was the first casualty of the Boston Massacre. -Gabby

Declaration of Independence- The Declaration of Independence was written in July of 1776. Thomas Jefferson was the main author. The main point of this document was to layout the framework for the country. It said that the colonists have the right to rebel, and it was to try to get other countries on their side. This was revolutionary because it encouraged other colonies to rebel. Social order depends on obedience to authority. - Gabby

Loyalists- These were people who lived in the American Colonies but were still loyal to Great Britian during the War of Independence. They contributed of about 20%-25% of the overall population. They were mostly rich people afraid of mob rule, but some were slaves and native americans. About 60,000 chose to move back to Britian at the end of the war. -Gabby

Louisiana purchase - Thomas Jefferson made this purchase in 1803 for $15 million dollars (it was a bargain!); it was purchased from France and double the geographical size of the U.S.; bought from Napoleon, who was at war and needed money after losing Haiti to a slave rebellion; Haiti was a producer of sugar, which was a major export commodity, so losing this island cost France a lot of profits; this land wasn't empty, though. People wanted to move into the new territory to farm, but they had to contest the native people and other settlers for the land. Jefferson was an Anti-Federalist, and he and his supporters believed in an agricultural society, so they felt this new land would help expand that idea for America; Federalists weren't very happy about this purchase because they didn't see the need for more land, especially since the U.S. was short on money too and this was a big purchase, even if it was cheap comparatively; Jefferson sent Lewis and Clark to explore it so that it could be settled effectively, make relationships with the natives, and discover any valuable resources available;

Federalists- The federalists wanted a strong central government.They believed in an economy based on commerce and manufacturing. They believed public office was for elite men only, and didn't want too much democracy. They were mainly east-coast urban dwellers. Alexander Hamilton was a prominent federalist, he was secretary of treasury. He called for tariff, take-over of state debt, and a national bank. The French Revolution of 1789 was too radical for the federalist, because of the execution o the king. -Gabby

Alien and Sedition Acts: A series of laws that were passed by the federalist congress in 1798 and signed by president adams. The laws included power to deport foreigners as well as making it harder for new immigrants to vote. -Veronica

Martha Ballard:

Erie Canal

The Brooks

Cotton Gin- Eli Whitney invented the Cotton Gin in 1793. It pulled the seeds out of cotton balls, it allowed process of short-staple cotton. This spread across the south and led cotton to become a cash crop. This lead to the expansion of slavery when it was on the decline. This is because of the need of land and labor to keep the cash crop growing. -Gabby