• Theodore Roosevelt - Spanish-American war led to his fame when he led his "Rough Riders" into battle at San Juan Hill on July 1st, 1898; was a progressive Republican and held a lot of the same political beliefs as Wilson, but leveraged a different angle to make them popular with the people; elected president in 1901; Became president in 1901 because he was VP at the time William McKinley? was shot by Leon C., an anarchist. (Roosevelt ran for president in 1904 and won and ran in 1912 but lost to Wilson). He denounced anarchism and criticized American social conditions. Advocated: regulations of corporations, support for union, more elastic currency, and railroad nationalization if they failed to serve the public good. Achievements: resolved 1902 coal strike, busted northern security company railroad company in 1902, established several national parks and reserves, 1906 Hepburn Railroad regulation Act, and the 1906 Pure food and drug act. -Rachel
  • Progressivism - Progressive Era (1890-1920). Usually white, Christian, middle class, college educated women. Disturbed by industrialization. Created Settlement houses to teach natives domestic skills. Done to fix ills of industrial system. Believed in science, government, and the future. Reforms: food and drug act of 1906. Direct election of senators (1913), creation of federal reserve system to regulate currency in 1913). Goals/Beliefs: Remove corruption from public life, enlargement of population participation in government, and convection that the functions of government itself needed to be increased and extended to relieve social and economic distress. -Rachel
  • W.E.B. Dubois - progressive leader who wanted to bring African-Americans up in society; described the "Talented Tenth" (1903) of the population that were worth elevating! Believed that eugenics was a way to benefit this upper echelon of society; top part of society should include same benefits, such as education, for all races in order to bring the rest of the African-American population up with them; compared to other leaders at the time like Booker T. Washington, who belived that African-Americans should work their way up from the bottom of society, he believed in education and how it could elevate them beyond the roles they had traditionally held; was a leader in NAACP;
  • National Women's Party - Created in 1916. Woman's suffrage movement, Alice Paul was the founder and Anna Howard Shaw and Carrie Chapman Catt played roles in this movement as well. It is considered the most important progressive reform because it led to woman gaining the right to vote (19th amendment). -Rachel
  • The Dust Bowl - A drought in the Great Plains causes most crops to die, and the loss of all the sod from the expansion westward prevents the dirt from staying in one place when the winds pick up. Dust was carried even as far as the East Coast, with huge walls of dust moving over entire cities and blocking out the sun; lasted from about 1930-40; killed the agricultural economy; even if crops managed to survive these dust storms, they were then subjected to roving swarms of locusts and grasshoppers that were seeking food in the absence of their usual sources; no one single cause, so reversing the effects was basically impossible; helped contribute to the Great Depression and the fall of the economy because of how many people's livelihoods were disrupted and the number of jobs that were taken out of the labor market; most of the displaced farmers moved west, especially to California, where they were discriminated against and called "Okies"
  • Wilson's 14 Points - Addressed to congress in January 1918. It was a vision for the post war world speech in 14 points, it was also a reason for entering the war. Points 1-5 were general principles for governing international conduct in the future. Points 6-13 were recommendations for adjusting postwar boundaries. The 14 point was establishing a league of nations to implement these principles and resolve future conflicts. Germany will sue for peace based on these points and along with the treaty of Versailles it ended WW1?. -Rachel
  • The Great Migration - African Americans moving from the South to the North from 1910s to 1930s. Over 1 million people migrated because of push (Jim Crow laws) and pull (better economic opportunities, like jobs in factories). At the end of the Civil War a lot of people did not move because of the Jim Crow laws but if a family member moved and wrote to other family members about the opportunities, they would also move. A lot of A.A. however wanted to be farmers because that is what they were used to doing for so long. The North was not all perfect because it still had slavery and racism. -Rachel
  • Crash of 1929 - A devastating Stock Market crash in the U.S. which contributed to the Great Depression. A huge production boom just before this caused prices to fall; also, investors were buying on margin, which means they were playing with money that didn't exist; didn't happen all at once, there was a drop in the stock market on the Thursday before Black Tuesday, which was the day the bottom fell out of the banks and stock market, but the richest bankers and investors bought up stocks, even though they didn't think they were worth buying, to buoy the stability of the market, but people had time to get nervous over the weekend and by Monday, they were selling because they owed money to lenders for the initial purchase of the stock, but the stock wasn't growing so they didn't think they'd be able to pay back the loan, so over the course of this week, there was more trading than there would be again for the next 40 years. Investments in the U.S. dropped from 16.2 billion in 1929 to .3 billion in 1933.
  • Franklin Delano Roosevelt - Democratic president from 1932-1945 when he died of cerebral hemorrhage. He created the new deal which produced the bank holiday that alleviated the consequences of the Great Depression. Created the second new deal in 1934. and is credited for saving capitalism in 8 days. while he was president he Glass Stealgall act was passed and established the federal deposit insurance corporation to protect american saving. Roosevelt also gave the four freedoms speech and increased the value of gold from 20 to 36 dollars per ounce to increase the free flow of currency. -Rachel
  • Bank Holiday - The first thing Franklin Roosevelt did in office was the bank holiday, which shut down all the banks in the United States to prevent the panicked public from taking out all their money. It was in March 1933 when he attempted to do this (although he could not do this on his own and had to use the Enemy Act when appealing to Congress, calling the depression the enemy). Congress enacted the emergency banking act and all the banks were shut down while analysts examined every bank to see if it needed to be shut down or reorganized. About 50% were fine, 20% needed to be reorganized and 5% had to close. Roosevelt explained to the citizens that everything was fine and it restored faith in the American public so when the banks opened over 600 million was deposited by the end of the week and over a billion by the end of he month. Roosevelt was credited for saving capitalism in 8 days. - Rachel
  • The New Deal - Implemented a lot of new programs like the CCC (Civilian Conservation Corps) which was intended to put young unmarried men to work with real experience for future jobs and focused on infrastructure, like building roads and maintaining utilities like water, sewer, electricity, etc.; also the AAA (the Agricultural Adjustment Act) which put restrictions/production limits on farms so that there wasn't an excess of certain crops and livestock which was intended to balance the inequality between rural and urban incomes, but it didn't go over well because it disrupted the farming production by forcing them to slaughter 6 million piglets, 20k sows, and plow under (destroy) 10 million acres of cotton, all of which made people skeptical of this program in particular, but it was actually focused on an economic improvement, relying on laws of supply and demand to return the farming industry to stability rather than the issue of using the produce directly; FDR got the New Deal passed in order to use the power of the State to make drastic changes, using gov't money to stimulate and stabilize the economy.
  • Social Security - FDR in his second new deal 1936 created Old age insurance. The elderly would receive a certain amount of money until death; Depended upon the generation before them and how much they worked/paid in; Older employees were being fired/laid off because they were being paid higher wages, employers saw more benefit in firing them and hiring younger, unskilled workers who would take less pay. This was Designed to provide a safety net for elderly so that they will retire and younger people may join the work force- Aliyah Mccray
  • Roosevelt's 4 Freedoms - Given by FDR on January 6, 1941, it was a speech that addressed the freedoms the allies were fighting for (speech, worship, from want, from fear), saying that if it was not addressed the freedoms will disappear. Speech so they could speak their minds, worship included for Jewish people, from want was for free trade, from fear of oppression by government. Expanded why GB and France were fighting in WW1?, he also believed their problems would become ours if not fixed. This speech laid out ideas pushing against the neutrality acts and lead up to the idea if the lend lease act which allowed he US to arm allies which prevents GB from falling. -Rachel
  • Lend Lease Act - In 1941, gave the President the ability to lend and lease arms to our allies during WWII; before this, the Neutrality Acts of 1935, 36, & 37 limited the U.S. involvement in what was happening in Europe. The 1935 Act prohibited the U.S. from entering or supporting countries at war, 1936 said U.S. wont send money to countries at war; the LL Act brought the U.S. one step closer to becoming militarily involved in the war, which was a departure from the U.S. isolationist stance that carried over from the first world war.
  • G.I. Bill of Rights - Piece of legislation to give benefits to soldiers coming back from World War II; benefits usually were based on length of service; mainly white men; benefits included: education support, employment assistance (get their old jobs back or a better one or give them unemployment), small business "loans", home loan financing, and health benefits. The idea was to help them adjust back to civilian life. Pushed by FDR. This occurred in the (1940s) after war, in Congress, Washington, DC. This bill demonstrates the US trying to learn from their mistakes ; going to college allowed for room for employment it also demonstrates racism/sexism in legislation. growth of suburbs and middle class (American Dream)
  • Japanese Internment - federal government removes more than 100,000 Japanese-Americans from homes, the majority of them being American citizens, and placed them in internment camps; Happened due to Pearl Harbor and war with Japan; rumors about Japanese spies; Camps went into effect in 1942; Essentially a prison camp; Supreme court ruled Executive Order as a "wartime necessity" at that time, but in 1988 congress did attempt to apologize to those who had been interned and were still alive.
  • United Nations -