• Assimilation - teaching Natives about European clothing, religion, farming (as a result of the destruction of the buffalo population), which results from undermining native culture through the introduction of horses and other practices.
  • Dawes Act - granted land (160 acres per household) to Native families, lost a large amount of the original land which contributed to the erosion of their culture. Whatever land was left over after distribution was taken and auctioned off to white settlers.
  • Separate but Equal - this is the argument that segregated facilities are legal since they don't discriminate in terms of what people have access to, even though they aren't in the same places or using the same resources. Restrooms are a significant example of how segregation worked under this principle; African-Americans weren't allowed to use the same restrooms as white Americans.
  • (Late 1877) Jim Crow laws - give voting restrictions and segregation legal authority in the South, following on the trends begun with Black Codes before Reconstruction ended. Loss of political authority for African Americans in the south results in moves by whites to return to slavery-era social dynamics.
  • Prohibition and the temperance movement: begun by women in order to restrict the use of alcohol; men were often abusing alcohol and then beating women, etc., so they used both passive and overt attempts to curb alcohol, such as the 18th amendment, which banned the sale of alcohol, but also Carrie Nation and other women actually destroying bars and places of sale.
  • Muckrakers: journalists and other activists seeking to expose the truth about big businesses and other changing aspects of American society. Teddy Roosevelt dubbed them muckrakers because they were digging up the dirtiest parts of society. The Jungle, by Upton Sinclair, was written to shine light on the working conditions of the meat packing industry, but ended up also exposing the unsanitary process of food production. Lewis Hine took pictures of working conditions, exposing problems with child labor and other abuses of working people.
  • Study Guide!