• Black Codes - completely violated free labor principles; contradicted civil rights established during reconstruction.
  • Civil Rights Bill and 14th and 15th Amendments passed by Radical Republicans during Reconstruction challenged the South's adherence to cultural practices that mirrored slavery
  • Military was used in the South to enforce amendment rights, but much of the concessions granted to help the African American community fell short due to the military being retracted.
  • Great Constitutional Revolution - shifted power from States to Federal control as the "custodian of freedom."
  • Reconstruction Acts - called for creation of new state governments, which helped give voting access to African Americans; forced states to rewrite their constitutions in order to be allowed back into the Union!
  • Jim Crow Laws - laws designed to segregate whites and African Americans during post-Reconstruction era and continuing through 1950s and 60s. New laws dictated the use of prison labor, which reflected the growing number of African Americans who were imprisoned post-Reconstruction for petty crimes (such as being unemployed). The change in African-American political and voting involvement after the end of Reconstruction prevents them from being able to write their own laws and, thereby, dictate what their own freedoms are.
  • Plessy v. Ferguson - court decision that leads to "separate but equal." Upholds the idea that facilities being separated by race aren't discriminatory so long as they are equal in nature. Separate railroad cars are the premise for this case. (Brown v. Board of Education overturns this in 1954!)
  • American Imperialism (1890s-) - U.S. involvement in other places around the world in order to control resources and hold territory. Conflicts in Cuba, the Philippines, and other places help get America more involved in global imperialism. A U.S. ship (U.S.S. Maine) in Cuba that is blown up leads to Americans joining a fight over control there.
  • Progressives - fighting unfair work conditions through labor laws, .... muckrakers are trying to highlight and identify the problems created by industrialization, such as The Jungle by Upton Sinclair; women's suffrage, including temperance and the 18th amendment which banned alcohol, as a means to strengthen families in the face of changing work conditions;
  • Study Guide!