• Black Codes - defined the ability of freedmen to participate in society in the South during Reconstruction. Can't vote if their grandfather was a slave, job contracts (which underprivileged illiterate people), miscegenation is forbidden; all of these things limit the amount of equality and defines the boundaries of African American inclusion in America, especially in the South.
  • Radical Republicans sought specifically to increase African American inclusion in politics and government. They saw Reconstruction as a golden opportunity to institutionalize the principle of equal rights for all regardless of racial difference.
  • 14th Amendment - made all states follow the Bill of Rights, Reconstruction Act, and Civil Rights Bill, especially establishing equal protection under the 14th Amendment's clause. Also established citizenship for all, which were rights being limited by black codes ("clearly the death of slavery did not automatically lead to the birth of freedom") - connections to Nast image work well with this.
  • Jim Crow Laws - placed specific restrictions on African American rights (voting, education, etc.) and overturned much of the progress created during Reconstruction.
  • Plessy v. Fergusson - established "separate but equal" which allowed society, especially in the South, to segregate access to public resources legally.
  • Imperialism could be argued "for" by citing economic advantages. Access to resources like coal, oil, and rubber became important for America because of industrialization. Human labor also becomes easier to exploit with international colonization. Beyond that, American identity was built on the idea of ambition, which Americans argued was a trait that they were obligated to spread across the world. Tied into that was the argument for religious missionary activity. Some Christians (evangelical) felt that it was their moral responsibility, their duty, to spread their religion to those who didn't have it.
  • Imperialism was argued "against" based on the hypocrisy of a former colonial society now practicing the same expansion and control that they had resisted.
  • Exam 1 Guide