• Dawes Act - broke up the reservations into parcels of land, somewhat based on the way the Homestead Act established land rights for westward expansion; traditional buffalo hunting culture had already been disrupted, so laws like the Dawes Act that set Natives up for a more "white" lifestyle were seen as ways to assimilate them to American life.
  • 14th Amendment Equal Protection Clause helped define the treatment of different races and cultures in America, but largely left out groups like Native Americans who weren't considered part of the Civil Rights (unless they payed taxes) that Radical Republicans pushed for.
  • Jim Crow Laws - laws used to limit certain rights for African Americans, specifically in the South. African American involvement in politics in the South during Reconstruction is increased because of their ability to vote and increased education, but Jim Crow laws, and court decisions like Plessy v. Ferguson, which defined "separate but equal," helped put into law the idea that African American rights could be limited and that society (and law) could be defined by race.
  • Imperialism for the U.S. is an era of expansion, including the Pacific, Caribbean, and the West. Economically, Imperialism made sense because it allowed the U.S. to gain access to more (and different) resources, which was critical because of the industrialization at this time. Religious missionary activity is also an argument for Imperialism, based on ideas of white cultural dominance. Arguments against Imperialism were based on the idea that it would be hypocritical for a nation that resisted colonial control to then impose that kind of control on other countries or colonies globally.
  • Exam 1 Guide
  • Muckrakers - journalists who made known the problems that existed as a result of industrialization, such as labor, Taylorism, deskilled labor, Upton Sinclair (The Jungle) exposed the conditions of meat packing plants and helped the populace recognize the need for sanitary food production (as well as harsh working conditions in factories). Lewis Hine (whose image is in the prompt) took photos of children in unsafe work spaces and exposed the need for child labor reform.
  • Women's rights were addressed during the Progressive era in terms of suffrage, but also with temperance (Carrie Nation chopped up bars with an axe!) 18th Amendment bars alcohol, 19th amendment guarantees women right to vote, etc.